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published by the Concord Consortium
supported by the National Science Foundation
This concept-building module contains a variety of simulations for exploring factors that cause molecules to attract each other. It was developed to help secondary students understand both polar and non-polar covalent bonding. Users can manipulate models to see how the strength of attraction is affected by distance from one molecule to another, by heating the substance, and by mixing polar and non-polar substances. Part II of the activity is devoted to hydrogen bonds, and explores why water is one of the most important molecules for life's existence. See Related Materials for a Teacher's Guide developed specifically to accompany this material.  

This item is part of the Concord Consortium, a nonprofit research and development organization dedicated to transforming education through technology.

Please note that this resource requires Java.
Subjects Levels Resource Types
Education Practices
- Technology
= Multimedia
General Physics
- Properties of Matter
Modern Physics
- Atomic Physics
= Atomic Models
Other Sciences
- Chemistry
- High School
- Middle School
- Lower Undergraduate
- Instructional Material
= Interactive Simulation
= Model
= Problem/Problem Set
= Tutorial
- Audio/Visual
= Image/Image Set
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- Educators
- application/java
- text/html
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© 2008 The Concord Consortium
Coulomb force, London dispersion, atomic structure, atomic/molecular, boiling point, covalent bonds, dipole-dipole bond, molecular attraction, molecular simulations, molecular structure, molecule simulations, non-polar covalent bond, polar bond
Record Cloner:
Metadata instance created August 22, 2011 by Caroline Hall
Record Updated:
August 10, 2020 by Lyle Barbato
Last Update
when Cataloged:
July 31, 2011
Other Collections:

AAAS Benchmark Alignments (2008 Version)

4. The Physical Setting

4D. The Structure of Matter
  • 6-8: 4D/M6c. Carbon and hydrogen are common elements of living matter.
  • 6-8: 4D/M10. A substance has characteristic properties such as density, a boiling point, and solubility, all of which are independent of the amount of the substance and can be used to identify it.
  • 6-8: 4D/M11. Substances react chemically in characteristic ways with other substances to form new substances with different characteristic properties.
  • 9-12: 4D/H2. The number of protons in the nucleus determines what an atom's electron configuration can be and so defines the element. An atom's electron configuration, particularly the outermost electrons, determines how the atom can interact with other atoms. Atoms form bonds to other atoms by transferring or sharing electrons.
  • 9-12: 4D/H7a. Atoms often join with one another in various combinations in distinct molecules or in repeating three-dimensional crystal patterns.
4G. Forces of Nature
  • 9-12: 4G/H2a. Electric forces acting within and between atoms are vastly stronger than the gravitational forces acting between the atoms. At larger scales, gravitational forces accumulate to produce a large and noticeable effect, whereas electric forces tend to cancel each other out.

11. Common Themes

11B. Models
  • 6-8: 11B/M1. Models are often used to think about processes that happen too slowly, too quickly, or on too small a scale to observe directly. They are also used for processes that are too vast, too complex, or too dangerous to study.
11D. Scale
  • 6-8: 11D/M3. Natural phenomena often involve sizes, durations, and speeds that are extremely small or extremely large. These phenomena may be difficult to appreciate because they involve magnitudes far outside human experience.
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Record Link
AIP Format
(The Concord Consortium, Concord, 2008), WWW Document, (
Concord Consortium: Intermolecular Attractions, (The Concord Consortium, Concord, 2008), <>.
APA Format
Concord Consortium: Intermolecular Attractions. (2011, July 31). Retrieved May 26, 2022, from The Concord Consortium:
Chicago Format
National Science Foundation. Concord Consortium: Intermolecular Attractions. Concord: The Concord Consortium, July 31, 2011. (accessed 26 May 2022).
MLA Format
Concord Consortium: Intermolecular Attractions. Concord: The Concord Consortium, 2008. 31 July 2011. National Science Foundation. 26 May 2022 <>.
BibTeX Export Format
@misc{ Title = {Concord Consortium: Intermolecular Attractions}, Publisher = {The Concord Consortium}, Volume = {2022}, Number = {26 May 2022}, Month = {July 31, 2011}, Year = {2008} }
Refer Export Format

%T Concord Consortium: Intermolecular Attractions %D July 31, 2011 %I The Concord Consortium %C Concord %U %O application/java

EndNote Export Format

%0 Electronic Source %D July 31, 2011 %T Concord Consortium: Intermolecular Attractions %I The Concord Consortium %V 2022 %N 26 May 2022 %8 July 31, 2011 %9 application/java %U

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Citation Source Information

The AIP Style presented is based on information from the AIP Style Manual.

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Concord Consortium: Intermolecular Attractions:

Is a Teaching Guide For Intermolecular Attractions Teaching Guide

This Teacher's Guide was developed specifically to accompany the Concord Consortium module called "Intermolecular Attractions." It contains a complete lesson plan, discussion questions, and more.

relation by Caroline Hall
Same topic as An Introduction to Chemistry: Molecular Structures

A large set of molecular models, which can be rotated and/or enlarged by the user. Users can zoom up to 800%, highlight bonds in a customized color scheme, and view element symbols & numbers.

relation by Caroline Hall

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