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published by the American Chemical Society
written by Patti Galvan and Jim Kessler
This multimedia lesson by the American Chemical Society explores how heating and cooling affect the motion of atoms in a solid. The inquiry-based lesson is supplemented by four interactive simulations that help students visualize particle configuration in solids and compare the molecular structure of solids and liquids. The classroom experiment uses a ball-and-ring apparatus to show expansion of a metal when heated. Included in the lesson is a student activity sheet with answer key and suggested discussion questions.

Editor's Note: The experiment may be done as a classroom lab or viewed as a video if the apparatus is unavailable to the teacher.

Please note that this resource requires Flash.
Subjects Levels Resource Types
General Physics
- Properties of Matter
Modern Physics
- Atomic Physics
= Atomic Models
Other Sciences
- Chemistry
Thermo & Stat Mech
- Thermal Properties of Matter
- Middle School
- Informal Education
- Instructional Material
= Curriculum
= Instructor Guide/Manual
= Interactive Simulation
= Lesson/Lesson Plan
= Problem/Problem Set
- Audio/Visual
= Movie/Animation
Intended Users Formats Ratings
- Educators
- Parent/Guardians
- Learners
- Administrators
- General Publics
- text/html
- application/flash
- application/pdf
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Access Rights:
Free access
Restriction:
© 2010 American Chemical Society
Keywords:
chemistry animations, chemistry videos, heat and temperature, liquids, molecular structure, properties of metals, solids, state changes, states of matter, thermal properties of metals
Record Cloner:
Metadata instance created April 26, 2011 by Caroline Hall
Record Updated:
April 26, 2011 by Caroline Hall
Last Update
when Cataloged:
January 31, 2011
Other Collections:

AAAS Benchmark Alignments (2008 Version)

4. The Physical Setting

4D. The Structure of Matter
  • 6-8: 4D/M1a. All matter is made up of atoms, which are far too small to see directly through a microscope.
  • 6-8: 4D/M3ab. Atoms and molecules are perpetually in motion. Increased temperature means greater average energy of motion, so most substances expand when heated.
  • 6-8: 4D/M3cd. In solids, the atoms or molecules are closely locked in position and can only vibrate. In liquids, they have higher energy, are more loosely connected, and can slide past one another; some molecules may get enough energy to escape into a gas. In gases, the atoms or molecules have still more energy and are free of one another except during occasional collisions.
  • 6-8: 4D/M8. Most substances can exist as a solid, liquid, or gas depending on temperature.
  • 6-8: 4D/M10. A substance has characteristic properties such as density, a boiling point, and solubility, all of which are independent of the amount of the substance and can be used to identify it.

11. Common Themes

11B. Models
  • 6-8: 11B/M1. Models are often used to think about processes that happen too slowly, too quickly, or on too small a scale to observe directly. They are also used for processes that are too vast, too complex, or too dangerous to study.
  • 6-8: 11B/M6. A model can sometimes be used to get ideas about how the thing being modeled actually works, but there is no guarantee that these ideas are correct if they are based on the model alone.
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Record Link
AIP Format
P. Galvan and J. Kessler, (American Chemical Society, Washington DC, 2010), WWW Document, (http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/lessonplans/chapter1/lesson4).
AJP/PRST-PER
P. Galvan and J. Kessler, Middle School Chemistry: Moving Molecules in a Solid, (American Chemical Society, Washington DC, 2010), <http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/lessonplans/chapter1/lesson4>.
APA Format
Galvan, P., & Kessler, J. (2011, January 31). Middle School Chemistry: Moving Molecules in a Solid. Retrieved December 20, 2014, from American Chemical Society: http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/lessonplans/chapter1/lesson4
Chicago Format
Galvan, Patti, and Jim Kessler. Middle School Chemistry: Moving Molecules in a Solid. Washington DC: American Chemical Society, January 31, 2011. http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/lessonplans/chapter1/lesson4 (accessed 20 December 2014).
MLA Format
Galvan, Patti, and Jim Kessler. Middle School Chemistry: Moving Molecules in a Solid. Washington DC: American Chemical Society, 2010. 31 Jan. 2011. 20 Dec. 2014 <http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/lessonplans/chapter1/lesson4>.
BibTeX Export Format
@misc{ Author = "Patti Galvan and Jim Kessler", Title = {Middle School Chemistry: Moving Molecules in a Solid}, Publisher = {American Chemical Society}, Volume = {2014}, Number = {20 December 2014}, Month = {January 31, 2011}, Year = {2010} }
Refer Export Format

%A Patti Galvan
%A Jim Kessler
%T Middle School Chemistry: Moving Molecules in a Solid
%D January 31, 2011
%I American Chemical Society
%C Washington DC
%U http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/lessonplans/chapter1/lesson4
%O text/html

EndNote Export Format

%0 Electronic Source
%A Galvan, Patti
%A Kessler, Jim
%D January 31, 2011
%T Middle School Chemistry: Moving Molecules in a Solid
%I American Chemical Society
%V 2014
%N 20 December 2014
%8 January 31, 2011
%9 text/html
%U http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/lessonplans/chapter1/lesson4


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Citation Source Information

The AIP Style presented is based on information from the AIP Style Manual.

The APA Style presented is based on information from APA Style.org: Electronic References.

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