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American Journal of Physics
written by Richard Hake
A survey of pre/post test data using the Halloun-Hestenes Mechanics Diagnostic test or more recent Force Concept Inventory is reported for 62 introductory physics courses enrolling a total number of students N=6542.  A consistent analysis over diverse student populations in high schools, colleges, and universities is obtained if a rough measure of the average effectiveness of a course in promoting conceptual understanding is taken to be the average normalized gain G.  The latter is defined as the ratio of the actual average gain (%post-%pre) to the maximum possible average gain (100-%pre).  Fourteen "traditional" (T) courses (N=2084) which made little or no use of interactive-engagement (IE) methods achieved an average gain G T-ave=0.23+-0.04 (stad dev).  In sharp contrast, 48 courses (N=4458) which made substantial use of IE methods achieved an average gain GIE=0.48 , almost two standard deviations of GIE above that of the traditional courses.  Results for 30 (N=3259) of the above 62 courses on the problem-solving Mechanics Baseline test of Hestenes-Wells imply that IE strategies enhance problem-solving ability.  The conceptual and problem-solving test results strongly suggest that the classroom use of IE methods can increase mechanics-course effectiveness well beyond that obtained in traditional practice.
American Journal of Physics: Volume 66, Issue 1, Pages 64-74
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© 1998 American Journal of Physics
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DOI:
10.1119/1.18809
Keywords:
FCI, Hake gain, average normalized gain, classical mechanics, mechanics baseline
Record Creator:
Metadata instance created July 13, 2005 by Lyle Barbato
Record Updated:
October 22, 2008 by Lyle Barbato
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when Cataloged:
January 1, 1998
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AIP Format
R. Hake, Am. J. Phys. 66 (1), 64 (1998), WWW Document, (http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.18809).
AJP/PRST-PER
R. Hake, Interactive-Engagement Versus Traditional Methods: A Six-Thousand-Student Survey of Mechanics Test Data for Introductory Physics Courses Am. J. Phys. 66 (1), 64 (1998), <http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.18809>.
APA Format
Hake, R. (1998, January 1). Interactive-Engagement Versus Traditional Methods: A Six-Thousand-Student Survey of Mechanics Test Data for Introductory Physics Courses. Am. J. Phys., 66(1), 64-74. Retrieved August 1, 2014, from http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.18809
Chicago Format
Hake, Richard. "Interactive-Engagement Versus Traditional Methods: A Six-Thousand-Student Survey of Mechanics Test Data for Introductory Physics Courses." Am. J. Phys. 66, no. 1, (January 1, 1998): 64-74, http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.18809 (accessed 1 August 2014).
MLA Format
Hake, Richard. "Interactive-Engagement Versus Traditional Methods: A Six-Thousand-Student Survey of Mechanics Test Data for Introductory Physics Courses." Am. J. Phys. 66.1 (1998): 64-74. 1 Aug. 2014 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.18809>.
BibTeX Export Format
@article{ Author = "Richard Hake", Title = {Interactive-Engagement Versus Traditional Methods: A Six-Thousand-Student Survey of Mechanics Test Data for Introductory Physics Courses}, Journal = {Am. J. Phys.}, Volume = {66}, Number = {1}, Pages = {64-74}, Month = {January}, Year = {1998} }
Refer Export Format

%A Richard Hake
%T Interactive-Engagement Versus Traditional Methods:  A Six-Thousand-Student Survey of Mechanics Test Data for Introductory Physics Courses
%J Am. J. Phys.
%V 66
%N 1
%D January 1, 1998
%P 64-74
%U http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.18809
%O text/html

EndNote Export Format

%0 Journal Article
%A Hake, Richard
%D January 1, 1998
%T Interactive-Engagement Versus Traditional Methods:  A Six-Thousand-Student Survey of Mechanics Test Data for Introductory Physics Courses
%J Am. J. Phys.
%V 66
%N 1
%P 64-74
%8 January 1, 1998
%U http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.18809


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