the National Science Foundation
This learning cycle features 24 videotaped experiments, organized sequentially for introducing Newton's Laws in introductory physics courses. Each video includes learning goal, prior information needed to understand the material, and questions to elicit critical thinking. The instructional method is based on cognitive apprenticeship, in which students focus on the process of science by observing, finding patterns, modeling, predicting, testing, and revising. The materials were designed to mirror the activities of scientists when they construct and apply knowledge.
See Related Materials for links to the full collection by the same authors and for free access to an article explaining the theoretical basis for this instructional method.
Please note that this resource requires
9-12: 1B/H1. Investigations are conducted for different reasons, including to explore new phenomena, to check on previous results, to test how well a theory predicts, and to compare theories.
9-12: 1B/H2. Hypotheses are widely used in science for choosing what data to pay attention to and what additional data to seek, and for guiding the interpretation of the data (both new and previously available).
9-12: 1B/H9. To be useful, a hypothesis should suggest what evidence would support it and what evidence would refute it. A hypothesis that cannot, in principle, be put to the test of evidence may be interesting, but it may not be scientifically useful.
2. The Nature of Mathematics
2C. Mathematical Inquiry
9-12: 2C/H2. Much of the work of mathematicians involves a modeling cycle, consisting of three steps: (1) using abstractions to represent things or ideas, (2) manipulating the abstractions according to some logical rules, and (3) checking how well the results match the original things or ideas. The actual thinking need not follow this order.
4. The Physical Setting
6-8: 4F/M3a. An unbalanced force acting on an object changes its speed or direction of motion, or both.
9-12: 4F/H1. The change in motion (direction or speed) of an object is proportional to the applied force and inversely proportional to the mass.
9-12: 4F/H2. All motion is relative to whatever frame of reference is chosen, for there is no motionless frame from which to judge all motion.
9-12: 4F/H4. Whenever one thing exerts a force on another, an equal amount of force is exerted back on it.
9-12: 4F/H7. In most familiar situations, frictional forces complicate the description of motion, although the basic principles still apply.
9-12: 4F/H8. Any object maintains a constant speed and direction of motion unless an unbalanced outside force acts on it.
10. Historical Perspectives
10B. Uniting the Heavens and Earth
9-12: 10B/H1. Isaac Newton, building on earlier descriptions of motion by Galileo, Kepler, and others, created a unified view of force and motion in which motion everywhere in the universe can be explained by the same few rules. Newton's system was based on the concepts of mass, force, and acceleration; his three laws of motion relating them; and a physical law stating that the force of gravity between any two objects in the universe depends only upon their masses and the distance between them.
9-12: 10B/H4. For several centuries, Newton's science was accepted without major changes because it explained so many different phenomena, could be used to predict many physical events (such as the appearance of Halley's comet), was mathematically sound, and had many practical applications.
12. Habits of Mind
12B. Computation and Estimation
9-12: 12B/H3. Make up and write out simple algorithms for solving real-world problems that take several steps.
9-12: 12B/H4. Use computer spreadsheet, graphing, and database programs to assist in quantitative analysis of real-world objects and events.
12E. Critical-Response Skills
9-12: 12E/H4. Insist that the key assumptions and reasoning in any argument—whether one's own or that of others—be made explicit; analyze the arguments for flawed assumptions, flawed reasoning, or both; and be critical of the claims if any flaws in the argument are found.
%0 Electronic Source %A Etkina, Eugenia %D September 19, 2008 %T Physics Teaching Technology Resource: Learning Cycles on Newton %V 2015 %N 7 July 2015 %8 September 19, 2008 %9 video/quicktime %U http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3/cycleindex.php?topicid=3
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