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edited by Judy Spicer
supported by the National Science Foundation
This instructional module offers a wide variety of resources to support a middle school unit on data analysis. Standards-based lessons on graph interpretation are presented in the context of real-world applications, such as population growth, junk mail, and global temperatures. Don't miss the "applet" collection, offering fun and interactive virtual activities on graphing and statistics for grades 5-8.

This module meets several standards within Benchmarks for Science Literacy (see Standards link), but is also aligned with data analysis standards found in the National Council for Teachers of Mathematics Standards (NCTM).

Please note that this resource requires Flash, or Java Applet Plug-in.
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Education Practices
- Active Learning
= Modeling
- Technology
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- Mathematics
- Middle School
- High School
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- Instructional Material
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= Instructor Guide/Manual
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Access Rights:
Free access
This material is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 license.
Rights Holder:
The Ohio State University
bar graphs, coordinate graphs, data interpretation, graph interpretation, graph reading, graph skills, histograms, linear regression, scatterplot, statistics
Record Creator:
Metadata instance created October 25, 2010 by Caroline Hall
Record Updated:
January 19, 2011 by Lyle Barbato
Last Update
when Cataloged:
February 25, 2007

AAAS Benchmark Alignments (2008 Version)

2. The Nature of Mathematics

2A. Patterns and Relationships
  • 3-5: 2A/E2. Mathematical ideas can be represented concretely, graphically, or symbolically.

9. The Mathematical World

9B. Symbolic Relationships
  • 3-5: 9B/E2. Tables and graphs can show how values of one quantity are related to values of another.
  • 6-8: 9B/M3. Graphs can show a variety of possible relationships between two variables. As one variable increases uniformly, the other may do one of the following: increase or decrease steadily, increase or decrease faster and faster, get closer and closer to some limiting value, reach some intermediate maximum or minimum, alternately increase and decrease, increase or decrease in steps, or do something different from any of these.
9E. Reasoning
  • 6-8: 9E/M5. In formal logic, a single example can never prove that a generalization is always true, but sometimes a single example can prove that a generalization is not always true. Proving a generalization to be false is easier than proving it to be true.

12. Habits of Mind

12D. Communication Skills
  • 6-8: 12D/M1. Organize information in simple tables and graphs and identify relationships they reveal.
  • 6-8: 12D/M2. Read simple tables and graphs produced by others and describe in words what they show.

AAAS Benchmark Alignments (1993 Version)


E. Reasoning
  • 9E (6-8) #4.  People are using incorrect logic when they make a statement such as "If A is true, then B is true; but A isn't true, therefore B isn't true either."


B. Models
  • 11B (3-5) #2.  Geometric figures, number sequences, graphs, diagrams, sketches, number lines, maps, and stories can be used to represent objects, events, and processes in the real world, although such representations can never be exact in every detail.


C. Manipulation and Observation
  • 12C (9-12) #2.  Use computers for producing tables and graphs and for making spreadsheet calculations.
D. Communication Skills
  • 12D (6-8) #4.  Understand writing that incorporates circle charts, bar and line graphs, two-way data tables, diagrams, and symbols.
E. Critical-Response Skills
  • 12E (6-8) #4.  Be aware that there may be more than one good way to interpret a given set of findings.
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Record Link
AIP Format
, edited by J. Spicer (2005), WWW Document, (
Middle School Portal: Data Analysis: As Real World As It Gets, , edited by J. Spicer (2005), <>.
APA Format
Spicer, J. (Ed.). (2007, February 25). Middle School Portal: Data Analysis: As Real World As It Gets. Retrieved June 23, 2018, from
Chicago Format
Spicer, Judy, ed. Middle School Portal: Data Analysis: As Real World As It Gets. February 25, 2007. (accessed 23 June 2018).
MLA Format
Spicer, Judy, ed. Middle School Portal: Data Analysis: As Real World As It Gets. 2005. 25 Feb. 2007. National Science Foundation. 23 June 2018 <>.
BibTeX Export Format
@misc{ Title = {Middle School Portal: Data Analysis: As Real World As It Gets}, Volume = {2018}, Number = {23 June 2018}, Month = {February 25, 2007}, Year = {2005} }
Refer Export Format

%A Judy Spicer, (ed)
%T Middle School Portal: Data Analysis: As Real World As It Gets
%D February 25, 2007
%O text/html

EndNote Export Format

%0 Electronic Source
%D February 25, 2007
%T Middle School Portal: Data Analysis: As Real World As It Gets
%E Spicer, Judy
%V 2018
%N 23 June 2018
%8 February 25, 2007
%9 text/html

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The AIP Style presented is based on information from the AIP Style Manual.

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