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written by Wayne Hu
Probing whether space is curved or flat, cosmologists have been searching for clues in ripples in the universe's microwave background left from the big bang. These tutorials explain the cosmic microwave background for neophytes, as well as more advanced readers.
Subjects Levels Resource Types
- Cosmology
- Upper Undergraduate
- Graduate/Professional
- High School
- Lower Undergraduate
- Informal Education
- Collection
- Instructional Material
= Tutorial
- Reference Material
Intended Users Formats Ratings
- Learners
- Researchers
- text/html
- application/java
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Free access
Has a copyright or other licensing restriction.
Advanced Material, CMB Tutorials, Intermediate Material, Student Projects, Supplementary Material
Record Creator:
Date Metadata Instance was created May 29, 2003 by Juliette Rupert
Record Updated:
February 7, 2011 by Lyle Barbato
Other Collections:

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AIP Format
W. Hu, , WWW Document, (
W. Hu, Cosmic Microwave Background Tutorials, <>.
APA Format
Hu, W. (n.d.). Cosmic Microwave Background Tutorials. Retrieved November 29, 2023, from
Chicago Format
Hu, Wayne. Cosmic Microwave Background Tutorials. (accessed 29 November 2023).
MLA Format
Hu, Wayne. Cosmic Microwave Background Tutorials. 29 Nov. 2023 <>.
BibTeX Export Format
@misc{ Author = "Wayne Hu", Title = {Cosmic Microwave Background Tutorials}, Volume = {2023}, Number = {29 November 2023}, Year = {} }
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%A Wayne Hu %T Cosmic Microwave Background Tutorials %U %O text/html

EndNote Export Format

%0 Electronic Source %A Hu, Wayne %T Cosmic Microwave Background Tutorials %V 2023 %N 29 November 2023 %9 text/html %U

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Citation Source Information

The AIP Style presented is based on information from the AIP Style Manual.

The APA Style presented is based on information from APA Electronic References.

The Chicago Style presented is based on information from Examples of Chicago-Style Documentation.

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