Student difficulties with determining expectation values in quantum mechanics Documents

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Student difficulties with expectation values in quantum mechanics 

written by Chandralekha Singh and Emily Marshman

The expectation value of an observable is an important concept in quantum mechanics. However, upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in physics have both conceptual and procedural difficulties when determining the expectation value of physical observables, especially when using Dirac notation. To investigate these difficulties, we administered free-response and multiple-choice questions and conducted individual interviews with students. Here, we discuss the analysis of data on student difficulties when determining the expectation value.

Last Modified December 1, 2016

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