Witnessing Entanglement Documents
Marisol N. Beck and Mark Beck
An entangled state of a two-particle system is a quantum state that cannot be separated--it cannot be written as the product of states of the individual particles. One way to tell if a system is entangled is to use it to violate a Bell inequality (such as the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt, CHSH, inequality), because entanglement is necessary to violate these inequalities. However, there are other, more efficient measurements that determine whether or not a system is entangled; an operator that corresponds to such a measurement is referred to as an entanglement witness. We present the theory of witness operators, and an undergraduate experiment that measures an entanglement witness for the joint polarization state of two photons. We are able to produce states for which the expectation value of the witness operator is entangled by more than 160 standard deviations.
Published November 17, 2015
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