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written by Glenn Elert
This page offers a clear explanation of the equations that can be used to describe the one-dimensional, constant acceleration motion of an object in terms of its three kinematic variables:  velocity, displacement, and time.  A set of problems accompanies the text, giving students practice in conceptual, algebraic,  calculus-based, and statistical questions.  This is part of an online textbook in introductory physics.
Subjects Levels Resource Types
Classical Mechanics
- Motion in One Dimension
- High School
- Lower Undergraduate
- Instructional Material
= Curriculum support
= Textbook
Appropriate Courses Categories Ratings
- Physical Science
- Conceptual Physics
- Algebra-based Physics
- AP Physics
- New teachers
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© 1998 Glenn Elert
Additional information is available.
acceleration, equations of motion, kinematics
Record Cloner:
Metadata instance created October 19, 2006 by Caroline Hall
Record Updated:
January 13, 2014 by Caroline Hall
Last Update
when Cataloged:
July 18, 2006
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Next Generation Science Standards

Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions (HS-PS2)

Students who demonstrate understanding can: (9-12)
  • Analyze data to support the claim that Newton's second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration. (HS-PS2-1)

NGSS Science and Engineering Practices (K-12)

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking (5-12)
  • Mathematical and computational thinking at the 9–12 level builds on K–8 and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions. (9-12)
    • Use mathematical or computational representations of phenomena to describe explanations. (9-12)

AAAS Benchmark Alignments (2008 Version)

2. The Nature of Mathematics

2B. Mathematics, Science, and Technology
  • 9-12: 2B/H3. Mathematics provides a precise language to describe objects and events and the relationships among them. In addition, mathematics provides tools for solving problems, analyzing data, and making logical arguments.

9. The Mathematical World

9B. Symbolic Relationships
  • 9-12: 9B/H5. When a relationship is represented in symbols, numbers can be substituted for all but one of the symbols and the possible value of the remaining symbol computed. Sometimes the relationship may be satisfied by one value, sometimes by more than one, and sometimes not at all.

12. Habits of Mind

12B. Computation and Estimation
  • 9-12: 12B/H3. Make up and write out simple algorithms for solving real-world problems that take several steps.

Common Core State Standards for Mathematics Alignments

Standards for Mathematical Practice (K-12)

MP.1 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

High School — Algebra (9-12)

Seeing Structure in Expressions (9-12)
  • A-SSE.2 Use the structure of an expression to identify ways to rewrite it.
  • A-SSE.3.c Use the properties of exponents to transform expressions for exponential functions.
Creating Equations? (9-12)
  • A-CED.4 Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations.
Reasoning with Equations and Inequalities (9-12)
  • A-REI.1 Explain each step in solving a simple equation as following from the equality of numbers asserted at the previous step, starting from the assumption that the original equation has a solution. Construct a viable argument to justify a solution method.

High School — Functions (9-12)

Linear, Quadratic, and Exponential Models? (9-12)
  • F-LE.1.a Prove that linear functions grow by equal differences over equal intervals, and that exponential functions grow by equal factors over equal intervals.
  • F-LE.5 Interpret the parameters in a linear or exponential function in terms of a context.

Common Core State Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 6—12

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity (6-12)
  • RST.9-10.10 By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 9—10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

This resource is part of a Physics Front Topical Unit.

Topic: Kinematics: The Physics of Motion
Unit Title: Motion in One Dimension

This page offers a clear explanation of the equations that can be used to describe the motion of an object in a straight line.  A comprehensive set of algebraic, statistical, and conceptual problems are included. Provides content support for middle school teachers.....also appropriate for high school physics students.

Link to Unit:
ComPADRE is beta testing Citation Styles!

Record Link
AIP Format
G. Elert, (1998), WWW Document, (https://physics.info/motion-equations/).
G. Elert, The Physics Hypertextbook: Equations of Motion (1998), <https://physics.info/motion-equations/>.
APA Format
Elert, G. (2006, July 18). The Physics Hypertextbook: Equations of Motion. Retrieved May 23, 2024, from https://physics.info/motion-equations/
Chicago Format
Elert, Glenn. The Physics Hypertextbook: Equations of Motion. July 18, 2006. https://physics.info/motion-equations/ (accessed 23 May 2024).
MLA Format
Elert, Glenn. The Physics Hypertextbook: Equations of Motion. 1998. 18 July 2006. 23 May 2024 <https://physics.info/motion-equations/>.
BibTeX Export Format
@misc{ Author = "Glenn Elert", Title = {The Physics Hypertextbook: Equations of Motion}, Volume = {2024}, Number = {23 May 2024}, Month = {July 18, 2006}, Year = {1998} }
Refer Export Format

%A Glenn Elert %T The Physics Hypertextbook: Equations of Motion %D July 18, 2006 %U https://physics.info/motion-equations/ %O text/html

EndNote Export Format

%0 Electronic Source %A Elert, Glenn %D July 18, 2006 %T The Physics Hypertextbook: Equations of Motion %V 2024 %N 23 May 2024 %8 July 18, 2006 %9 text/html %U https://physics.info/motion-equations/

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Citation Source Information

The AIP Style presented is based on information from the AIP Style Manual.

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