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written by Noah S. Podolefsky, Emily B. Moore, and Katherine Perkins
This free-access report by the PhET simulation team discusses foundations of tool-mediated learning, tool design, and human computer interaction to develop a framework for implicit scaffolding in learning environments. In education, scaffolding is a way for teachers to provide support while students master new concepts and skills. In simulation design, implicit scaffolding means providing feedback to frame and scaffold student exploration without explicit guidance. It is considered a particularly useful design framework for interactive simulations in science and mathematics. A key purpose of implicit scaffolding is to support a range of educational goals including affect, content, and scientific reasoning processes. In particular, the use of implicit scaffolding creates learning environments that are productive for content learning and are able to simultaneously support the affective goals of student agency and ownership over the learning process - goals that may not be addressed in more directed learning environments. This report describes how the framework is applied in the context of the Energy Skate Park: Basics simulation, a simulation aimed at middle school student learning of energy concepts. Interview data provides an examples of how teachers might use implicit scaffolding in the classroom.
Subjects ADS Supplements Resource Types
Classical Mechanics
- Work and Energy
= Conservation of Energy
Education Foundations
- Learning Theory
= Cognitive Modeling
- Sample Population
= Age
Education Practices
- Active Learning
= Modeling
- Instructional Material Design
= Simulation
- Technology
= Multimedia
- Reference Material
= Report
Appropriate Courses Categories Ratings
- Physical Science
- Physics First
- Conceptual Physics
- Activity
- New teachers
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Intended Users:
Educator
Professional/Practitioner
Researcher
Format:
application/pdf
Access Rights:
Free access
License:
This material is released under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license.
Rights Holder:
Physics Technology Education Group (PhET)
DOI:
10.48550/arXiv.1306.6544
NSF Number:
DRK12-1020362
Keywords:
Constructivist Theory, PhET research, constructivism, energy conservation simulation, energy simulation
Record Creator:
Metadata instance created September 15, 2022 by Lauren Bauman
Record Updated:
December 18, 2022 by Caroline Hall
Last Update
when Cataloged:
January 1, 2014
Other Collections:

Next Generation Science Standards

Energy (MS-PS3)

Students who demonstrate understanding can: (6-8)
  • Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to describe the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass of an object and to the speed of an object. (MS-PS3-1)
  • Construct, use, and present arguments to support the claim that when the motion energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object. (MS-PS3-5)

Disciplinary Core Ideas (K-12)

Definitions of Energy (PS3.A)
  • Motion energy is properly called kinetic energy; it is proportional to the mass of the moving object and grows with the square of its speed. (6-8)
  • A system of objects may also contain stored (potential) energy, depending on their relative positions. (6-8)
Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer (PS3.B)
  • When the motion energy of an object changes, there is inevitably some other change in energy at the same time. (6-8)
Relationship Between Energy and Forces (PS3.C)
  • When two objects interact, each one exerts a force on the other that can cause energy to be transferred to or from the object. (6-8)

Crosscutting Concepts (K-12)

Energy and Matter (2-12)
  • Energy may take different forms (e.g. energy in fields, thermal energy, energy of motion). (6-8)
  • Within a natural system, the transfer of energy drives the motion and/or cycling of matter. (6-8)
  • Within a natural or designed system, the transfer of energy drives the motion and/or cycling of matter. (6-8)

NGSS Science and Engineering Practices (K-12)

Developing and Using Models (K-12)
  • Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to developing, using and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems. (6-8)
    • Develop and use a model to describe phenomena. (6-8)
    • Develop a model to generate data to test ideas about designed systems, including those representing inputs and outputs. (6-8)
ComPADRE is beta testing Citation Styles!

Record Link
AIP Format
N. Podolefsky, E. Moore, and K. Perkins, , 2014, WWW Document, (https://arxiv.org/abs/1306.6544).
AJP/PRST-PER
N. Podolefsky, E. Moore, and K. Perkins, Implicit scaffolding in interactive simulations: Design strategies to support multiple educational goals, 2014, <https://arxiv.org/abs/1306.6544>.
APA Format
Podolefsky, N., Moore, E., & Perkins, K. (2014). Implicit scaffolding in interactive simulations: Design strategies to support multiple educational goals. Retrieved February 8, 2023, from https://arxiv.org/abs/1306.6544
Chicago Format
Podolefsky, N, E. Moore, and K. Perkins. "Implicit scaffolding in interactive simulations: Design strategies to support multiple educational goals." 30. 2014. https://arxiv.org/abs/1306.6544 (accessed 8 February 2023).
MLA Format
Podolefsky, Noah S., Emily Moore, and Katherine Perkins. Implicit scaffolding in interactive simulations: Design strategies to support multiple educational goals. 2014. 8 Feb. 2023 <https://arxiv.org/abs/1306.6544>.
BibTeX Export Format
@techreport{ Author = "Noah S. Podolefsky and Emily Moore and Katherine Perkins", Title = {Implicit scaffolding in interactive simulations: Design strategies to support multiple educational goals}, Month = {January}, Year = {2014} }
Refer Export Format

%A Noah S. Podolefsky %A Emily Moore %A Katherine Perkins %T Implicit scaffolding in interactive simulations: Design strategies to support multiple educational goals %D January 1, 2014 %P 30 %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1306.6544 %O application/pdf

EndNote Export Format

%0 Report %A Podolefsky, Noah S. %A Moore, Emily %A Perkins, Katherine %D January 1, 2014 %T Implicit scaffolding in interactive simulations: Design strategies to support multiple educational goals %P 30 %8 January 1, 2014 %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1306.6544


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