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written by Christopher Mulliss
This page deals with significant figures and rounding rules. It's primary audience is teachers of high-school and college-level science classes like Physics and Chemistry, but there are links to sites for students as well. For educators, this page describes recent research into the accuracy and safety of the standard rounding rule for multiplication and division and discusses the implicationsfor science education.
Subjects Levels Resource Types
General Physics
- Measurement/Units
Other Sciences
- Mathematics
- High School
- Graduate/Professional
- Lower Undergraduate
- Informal Education
- Upper Undergraduate
- Reference Material
Appropriate Courses Categories Ratings
- Physical Science
- Physics First
- Conceptual Physics
- Algebra-based Physics
- AP Physics
- Lesson Plan
- Activity
- New teachers
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Access Rights:
Free access
Has a copyright or other licensing restriction.
error propagation, mathematics, rounding, sig figs, significant figures
Record Creator:
Date Metadata Instance was created July 1, 2003 by Waylon Flinn
Record Updated:
August 16, 2008 by Cathy Ezrailson
Other Collections:

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Record Link
AIP Format
C. Mulliss, , WWW Document, (http://www.angelfire.com/oh/cmulliss/index.html).
C. Mulliss, Significant Figures and Rounding Rules, , <http://www.angelfire.com/oh/cmulliss/index.html>.
APA Format
Mulliss, C. (n.d.). Significant Figures and Rounding Rules. Retrieved December 8, 2021, from http://www.angelfire.com/oh/cmulliss/index.html
Chicago Format
Mulliss, Christopher. Significant Figures and Rounding Rules. http://www.angelfire.com/oh/cmulliss/index.html (accessed 8 December 2021).
MLA Format
Mulliss, Christopher. Significant Figures and Rounding Rules. 8 Dec. 2021 <http://www.angelfire.com/oh/cmulliss/index.html>.
BibTeX Export Format
@misc{ Author = "Christopher Mulliss", Title = {Significant Figures and Rounding Rules}, Volume = {2021}, Number = {8 December 2021}, Year = {} }
Refer Export Format

%A Christopher Mulliss %T Significant Figures and Rounding Rules %U http://www.angelfire.com/oh/cmulliss/index.html %O text/html

EndNote Export Format

%0 Electronic Source %A Mulliss, Christopher %T Significant Figures and Rounding Rules %V 2021 %N 8 December 2021 %9 text/html %U http://www.angelfire.com/oh/cmulliss/index.html

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