published by
the PhET
content provider:
the UTeach - University of Texas

This lesson plan was crafted by PhET teacher-fellows specifically to accompany the simulation Projectile Motion. It is quite comprehensive, providing both teacher and learner with appropriate support to learn about projectile motion with or without air resistance. It contains scripted teacher discussion, background information, explanations of fluid properties of air and coefficient of drag, common misconceptions, and modifiable worksheets.

See Related Materials for a link to the Projectile Motion simulation, which must be running to complete this activity.

Editor's Note:Allow two class periods. Appropriate for Grades 8-9, but may be easily adapted to a course in Physics First or Conceptual Physics.

Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions (MS-PS2)

Students who demonstrate understanding can: (6-8)

Apply Newton's Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects. (MS-PS2-1)

Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object's motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object. (MS-PS2-2)

Disciplinary Core Ideas (K-12)

Forces and Motion (PS2.A)

For any pair of interacting objects, the force exerted by the first object on the second object is equal in strength to the force that the second object exerts on the first, but in the opposite direction (Newton's third law). (6-8)

The motion of an object is determined by the sum of the forces acting on it; if the total force on the object is not zero, its motion will change. The greater the mass of the object, the greater the force needed to achieve the same change in motion. For any given object, a larger force causes a larger change in motion. (6-8)

NGSS Science and Engineering Practices (K-12)

Analyzing and Interpreting Data (K-12)

Analyzing data in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to extending quantitative analysis to investigations, distinguishing between correlation and causation, and basic statistical techniques of data and error analysis. (6-8)

Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for phenomena. (6-8)

Developing and Using Models (K-12)

Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to developing, using and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems. (6-8)

Develop and use a model to describe phenomena. (6-8)

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations (K-12)

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include investigations that use multiple variables and provide evidence to support explanations or design solutions. (6-8)

Conduct an investigation to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence that meet the goals of an investigation. (6-8)

NGSS Nature of Science Standards (K-12)

Analyzing and Interpreting Data (K-12)

Analyzing data in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to extending quantitative analysis to investigations, distinguishing between correlation and causation, and basic statistical techniques of data and error analysis. (6-8)

Developing and Using Models (K-12)

Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to developing, using and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems. (6-8)

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations (K-12)

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include investigations that use multiple variables and provide evidence to support explanations or design solutions. (6-8)

AAAS Benchmark Alignments (2008 Version)

4. The Physical Setting

4F. Motion

6-8: 4F/M3a. An unbalanced force acting on an object changes its speed or direction of motion, or both.

9-12: 4F/H1. The change in motion (direction or speed) of an object is proportional to the applied force and inversely proportional to the mass.

9-12: 4F/H4. Whenever one thing exerts a force on another, an equal amount of force is exerted back on it.

9-12: 4F/H8. Any object maintains a constant speed and direction of motion unless an unbalanced outside force acts on it.

9. The Mathematical World

9B. Symbolic Relationships

6-8: 9B/M2. Rates of change can be computed from differences in magnitudes and vice versa.

11. Common Themes

11B. Models

6-8: 11B/M1. Models are often used to think about processes that happen too slowly, too quickly, or on too small a scale to observe directly. They are also used for processes that are too vast, too complex, or too dangerous to study.

9-12: 11B/H1a. A mathematical model uses rules and relationships to describe and predict objects and events in the real world.

Common Core State Standards for Mathematics Alignments

Standards for Mathematical Practice (K-12)

MP.4 Model with mathematics.

Expressions and Equations (6-8)

Represent and analyze quantitative relationships between
dependent and independent variables. (6)

6.EE.9 Use variables to represent two quantities in a real-world problem that change in relationship to one another; write an equation to express one quantity, thought of as the dependent variable, in terms of the other quantity, thought of as the independent variable. Analyze the relationship between the dependent and independent variables using graphs and tables, and relate these to the equation.

Functions (8)

Define, evaluate, and compare functions. (8)

8.F.2 Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions).

Common Core State Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects 6—12

Text Types and Purposes (6-12)

1. Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content. (WHST.6-8.1)

Production and Distribution of Writing (6-12)

WHST.6-8.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

This resource is part of a Physics Front Topical Unit.

Topic: Kinematics: The Physics of Motion Unit Title: Motion in More Than One Dimension

An excellent two-day lesson to accompany the PhET simulation Projectile Motion (see Activities below). It was crafted by educators to provide robust support to both teachers and learners on projectile motion with and without air resistance. You will find scripted teacher discussion, explanations of fluid properties of air, and modifiable worksheets. Created for middle school, but can be easily adapted to Physics First or Physics Prep courses.

<a href="https://www.compadre.org/precollege/items/detail.cfm?ID=12408">UTeach - University of Texas. PhET Teacher Activities: Air Resistance Lesson. Boulder: PhET, June 22, 2012.</a>

PhET Teacher Activities: Air Resistance Lesson. (2012, June 22). Retrieved November 29, 2023, from PhET: https://phet.colorado.edu/en/contributions/view/3542

UTeach - University of Texas. PhET Teacher Activities: Air Resistance Lesson. Boulder: PhET, June 22, 2012. https://phet.colorado.edu/en/contributions/view/3542 (accessed 29 November 2023).

%0 Electronic Source %D June 22, 2012 %T PhET Teacher Activities: Air Resistance Lesson %I PhET %V 2023 %N 29 November 2023 %8 June 22, 2012 %9 application/pdf %U https://phet.colorado.edu/en/contributions/view/3542

Disclaimer: ComPADRE offers citation styles as a guide only. We cannot offer interpretations about citations as this is an automated procedure. Please refer to the style manuals in the Citation Source Information area for clarifications.