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published by the Visionlearning
written by Anthony Carpi
supported by the National Science Foundation
Available Languages: English, Spanish
This is the second part of a classroom-tested learning module on the development of atomic theory. It focuses on the discovery of ions, isotopes, and electron shells. The key idea is that, while the number of protons in an atom remains constant, the number of electrons and neutrons can vary. It includes simple simulations of a hydrogen ion, a hydrogen isotope, energy levels in an "electron shell" model of the atom, and animations of electron configurations for the first eleven elements. See Related Materials for a link to Part One of this series.

Please note that this resource requires Flash.
Editor's Note: This tutorial could be highly useful to elementary teachers seeking additional content knowledge in the basics of atomic structure. The conversational language is appropriate for high school students as well. Don't miss the "Questions and Quizzes" and links to additional resources on the topic.
Subjects Levels Resource Types
General Physics
- History
Modern Physics
- Atomic Physics
= Atomic Models
- Nuclear Physics
= Models of the Nucleus
- High School
- Middle School
- Lower Undergraduate
- Instructional Material
= Problem/Problem Set
= Tutorial
- Audio/Visual
= Movie/Animation
Appropriate Courses Categories Ratings
- Physical Science
- Physics First
- Conceptual Physics
- Algebra-based Physics
- Activity
- Assessment
- New teachers
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© 2003 VisionLearning
Additional information is available.
Bohr model, Neils Bohr, atomic structure, charged particles, electron, electron excitation, history of atom, history of the atom, hydrogen atom, ion, isotope, neutron, nuclear structure, nucleus, proton, stable element, structure of the nucleus, unstable element
Record Cloner:
Metadata instance created July 12, 2011 by Caroline Hall
Record Updated:
August 4, 2016 by Lyle Barbato
Last Update
when Cataloged:
April 30, 2006

AAAS Benchmark Alignments (2008 Version)

4. The Physical Setting

4D. The Structure of Matter
  • 6-8: 4D/M1a. All matter is made up of atoms, which are far too small to see directly through a microscope.
  • 9-12: 4D/H1. Atoms are made of a positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons. The nucleus is a tiny fraction of the volume of an atom but makes up almost all of its mass. The nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons which have roughly the same mass but differ in that protons are positively charged while neutrons have no electric charge.
  • 9-12: 4D/H2. The number of protons in the nucleus determines what an atom's electron configuration can be and so defines the element. An atom's electron configuration, particularly the outermost electrons, determines how the atom can interact with other atoms. Atoms form bonds to other atoms by transferring or sharing electrons.
  • 9-12: 4D/H3. Although neutrons have little effect on how an atom interacts with other atoms, the number of neutrons does affect the mass and stability of the nucleus. Isotopes of the same element have the same number of protons (and therefore of electrons) but differ in the number of neutrons.
4E. Energy Transformations
  • 9-12: 4E/H5. When energy of an isolated atom or molecule changes, it does so in a definite jump from one value to another, with no possible values in between. The change in energy occurs when light is absorbed or emitted, so the light also has distinct energy values. The light emitted or absorbed by separate atoms or molecules (as in a gas) can be used to identify what the substance is.
4G. Forces of Nature
  • 9-12: 4G/H3. Most materials have equal numbers of protons and electrons and are therefore electrically neutral. In most cases, a material acquires a negative charge by gaining electrons and acquires a positive charge by losing electrons. Even a tiny imbalance in the number of protons and electrons in an object can produce noticeable electric forces on other objects.
  • 9-12: 4G/H6. The nuclear forces that hold the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom together are much stronger than the electric forces between the protons and electrons of the atom. That is why much greater amounts of energy are released from nuclear reactions than from chemical reactions.

10. Historical Perspectives

10F. Understanding Fire
  • 9-12: 10F/H3. In the early 1800s, British chemist and physicist John Dalton united the concepts of atoms and elements. He proposed two ideas that laid the groundwork for modern chemistry: first, that elements are formed from small, indivisible particles called atoms, which are identical for a given element but different from any other element; and second, that chemical compounds are formed from atoms by combining a definite number of each type of atom to form one molecule of the compound.
  • 9-12: 10F/H4. Dalton figured out how the relative weights of the atoms could be determined experimentally. His idea that every substance had a unique atomic composition provided an explanation for why substances were made up of elements in specific proportions.

11. Common Themes

11B. Models
  • 6-8: 11B/M1. Models are often used to think about processes that happen too slowly, too quickly, or on too small a scale to observe directly. They are also used for processes that are too vast, too complex, or too dangerous to study.
  • 6-8: 11B/M4. Simulations are often useful in modeling events and processes.
11D. Scale
  • 6-8: 11D/M3. Natural phenomena often involve sizes, durations, and speeds that are extremely small or extremely large. These phenomena may be difficult to appreciate because they involve magnitudes far outside human experience.

Common Core State Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 6—12

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity (6-12)
  • RST.11-12.10 By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 11—CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently.

This resource is part of a Physics Front Topical Unit.

Topic: Particles and Interactions and the Standard Model
Unit Title: History and Discovery

This is the second part of a classroom-tested learning module on the development of atomic theory. It focuses on the discovery of ions, isotopes, and electron shells. The key idea is that, while the number of protons in an atom remains constant, the number of electrons and neutrons can vary. It includes simple simulations of a hydrogen ion, a hydrogen isotope, energy levels in an "electron shell" model of the atom, and more.

Link to Unit:
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AIP Format
A. Carpi, (Visionlearning, 2003), WWW Document, (https://www.visionlearning.com/en/library/Chemistry/1/Atomic-Theory-II/51).
A. Carpi, Visionlearning: Atomic Theory II (Visionlearning, 2003), <https://www.visionlearning.com/en/library/Chemistry/1/Atomic-Theory-II/51>.
APA Format
Carpi, A. (2006, April 30). Visionlearning: Atomic Theory II. Retrieved May 21, 2024, from Visionlearning: https://www.visionlearning.com/en/library/Chemistry/1/Atomic-Theory-II/51
Chicago Format
Carpi, Anthony. Visionlearning: Atomic Theory II. Visionlearning, April 30, 2006. https://www.visionlearning.com/en/library/Chemistry/1/Atomic-Theory-II/51 (accessed 21 May 2024).
MLA Format
Carpi, Anthony. Visionlearning: Atomic Theory II. Visionlearning, 2003. 30 Apr. 2006. National Science Foundation. 21 May 2024 <https://www.visionlearning.com/en/library/Chemistry/1/Atomic-Theory-II/51>.
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@misc{ Author = "Anthony Carpi", Title = {Visionlearning: Atomic Theory II}, Publisher = {Visionlearning}, Volume = {2024}, Number = {21 May 2024}, Month = {April 30, 2006}, Year = {2003} }
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%A Anthony Carpi %T Visionlearning: Atomic Theory II %D April 30, 2006 %I Visionlearning %U https://www.visionlearning.com/en/library/Chemistry/1/Atomic-Theory-II/51 %O text/html

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%0 Electronic Source %A Carpi, Anthony %D April 30, 2006 %T Visionlearning: Atomic Theory II %I Visionlearning %V 2024 %N 21 May 2024 %8 April 30, 2006 %9 text/html %U https://www.visionlearning.com/en/library/Chemistry/1/Atomic-Theory-II/51

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Visionlearning: Atomic Theory II:

Accompanies Visionlearning: Atomic Theory I

A link to Part 1 of Visionlearning's Atomic Theory, which focuses on development of early atomic theory from the late 19th Century to the early 20th Century.

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