Recent PER-Central Releases
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The latest PER-Central features, resource additions, and announcements.en-USCopyright 2018, ComPADRE.orgeditor@per-central.org (Managing Editor)Sun, 18 Mar 2018 06:00:10 ESThttp://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rsshttps://www.compadre.org/PER/services/images/LogoSmallPER.gifPER-Central
https://www.compadre.org/PER/
12535An Overview on Research on Gender and Under-Represented Ethnicities in Physics EducationThis chapter provides an overview of the physics education research focusing on two under-represented populations in physics: women and under-represented races and ethnicities. A brief overview of the historical data on the participation of women and under-represented races leads into some of the questions that PER has asked regarding how physics education may differently affect these groups. Suggestions for those interested in doing such research are provided.
https://www.compadre.org/PER/items/detail.cfm?ID=14686
https://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=14686&DocID=4868https://www.compadre.org/PER/bulletinboard/Thread.cfm?ID=14686Education Foundations/Societal Issues/Gender IssuesWed, 14 Mar 2018 17:31:00 EST2017 Physics Education Research Conference ProceedingsThe theme of the 2017 Physics Education Research (PER) Conference was "Mathematization and Physics Education."<br /><br />The focus on mathematics in physics is increasing along with connections between the PER and Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education (RUME) communities. Thus we highlighted mathematization research at the 2017 PERC. Mathematization refers to the spontaneous tendency to use mathematical concepts to quantify and make sense of the physical world. It is not about how well people can perform mathematical procedures. Rather, mathematization describes how people conceptualize the meaning of mathematics in the context of physics.<br /><br />Expert-like mathematization in physics involves both a procedural and conceptual mastery of the prerequisite mathematics involved. Gray and Tall highlighted this distinction and refer to the target learning goal as proceptual understanding, in which procedural mastery and conceptual understanding coexist. When reasoning mathematically with physics quantities, many students become entrenched in a procedural approach. Some reach a high level of procedural efficiency without much conceptual mathematical understanding, while other students develop greater mathematical flexibility. An achievement gap emerges between those performing procedurally and those developing greater flexibility. This gap in early math learning is referred to as the proceptual divide.<br /><br />The proceptual divide is evident in physics courses, where success depends on having a proceptual understanding of both the prerequisite math and the learned physics. For example, the obstacles calculus level students encounter using basic proportional reasoning when it involves physics quantities and real numbers, rather than everyday quantities and whole numbers. Similarly, most introductory physics students approach symbol-rich physics problems that involve calculus or trigonometry as a procedure, framing their task as one of answermaking instead of sensemaking.
https://www.compadre.org/PER/items/detail.cfm?ID=14559
https://www.compadre.org/per/perc/conference.cfm?Y=2017https://www.compadre.org/PER/bulletinboard/Thread.cfm?ID=14559General Physics/Physics Education ResearchFri, 02 Mar 2018 12:32:12 ESTThe use of epistemic distancing to create a safe space to sensemake in introductory physics tutorialsIn active engagement physics classrooms, students get opportunities to make sense of physics together through discussion. They do not always take up these opportunities, in part because of the risk of sharing their ideas and having them rejected by their classmates or the instructors. In this case study, I analyze videotaped discourse of a tutorial group's early discussions to investigate how students manage these risks in creating a safe space to sensemake. I find that the students rely on a discursive resource – epistemic distancing – to share their ideas while protecting themselves affectively if others disagree. Epistemic distancing includes hedging, joking, deferring, and other discourse moves used to soften one's stance in conversation. I use video analysis to illustrate the effects of these moves on one tutorial group's initial sensemaking discussions. I then discuss implications for instructors wishing to encourage sensemaking discussions in their physics classrooms.
https://www.compadre.org/PER/items/detail.cfm?ID=14678
https://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=14678&DocID=4855https://www.compadre.org/PER/bulletinboard/Thread.cfm?ID=14678Education Practices/Active Learning/Cooperative LearningFri, 02 Mar 2018 10:51:15 ESTNegative quantities in mechanics: a fine-grained math and physics conceptual blend?Physics experts move fluidly between varied meanings of the negative sign associated with physical quantities. Although researching student understanding of negative numbers is common in mathematics education, little research has been published that focuses on students' interpretation of negativity in the context of physics quantities. In this study, we investigated student reasoning about the negative sign associated with acceleration, work and position. A theoretical model of the mathematical nature of negativity guided our development of three open-ended survey items which were administered to students in introductory calculus-based physics courses. We observed that students who use vector direction as a resource to reason about negative acceleration and negative work tend to be more flexible across the three natures of negativity probed in our survey than students who use predominantly motion and energy-based reasoning. We followed up with a secondary study in which the intervention group was asked to explain their reasoning from a mathematical perspective in the context of negative work, and observed that this epistemic nudge led to significant improvement. We interpret the productive reasoning space associated with physics quantity as a tight cognitive blend in which the physics and the mathematics are indistinguishable. This interpretation departs from prior models based on separable physics worlds and math worlds.
https://www.compadre.org/PER/items/detail.cfm?ID=14570
https://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=14570&DocID=4747https://www.compadre.org/PER/bulletinboard/Thread.cfm?ID=14570Education Foundations/Learning Theory/TransferThu, 01 Mar 2018 23:20:29 ESTConcept and empirical evaluation of a new curriculum to teach electricity with a focus on voltageEffective reasoning about electric circuits requires a solid understanding of voltage and potential. However, most students fail to correctly analyze electric circuits as they tend to reason exclusively with current and resistance. To address these difficulties, a new curriculum based on the electron gas model was developed and empirically evaluated in a study with 790 students from Frankfurt, Germany. The study follows a pretest- posttest-control-group design and uses a recognized two-tier diagnostic test instrument, which also allows evaluating common alternative conceptions. The results of the diagnostic assessment are very promising; students taught according to the new curriculum not only develop a significantly better conceptual understanding of voltage, but also show achievement gains of about twice that of their traditionally taught peers.
https://www.compadre.org/PER/items/detail.cfm?ID=14571
https://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=14571&DocID=4748https://www.compadre.org/PER/bulletinboard/Thread.cfm?ID=14571Education Practices/Curriculum DevelopmentThu, 01 Mar 2018 23:13:01 ESTInstructor perspectives on iteration during upper-division optics lab activitiesAlthough developing proficiency with modeling is a nationally endorsed learning outcome for upper-division undergraduate physics lab courses, no corresponding research-based assessments exist. Our longterm goal is to develop assessments of students' modeling ability that are relevant across multiple upper-division lab contexts. To this end, we interviewed 19 instructors from 16 institutions about optics lab activities that incorporate photodiodes. Interviews focused on how those activities were designed to engage students in some aspects of modeling. We find that, according to many interviewees, iteration is an important aspect of modeling. In addition, interviewees described four distinct types of iteration: revising apparatuses, revising models, revising data-taking procedures, and repeating data collection using existing apparatuses and procedures. We provide examples of each type of iteration, and discuss implications for the development of future modeling assessments.
https://www.compadre.org/PER/items/detail.cfm?ID=14582
https://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=14582&DocID=4759https://www.compadre.org/PER/bulletinboard/Thread.cfm?ID=14582Education Practices/Active Learning/ModelingThu, 01 Mar 2018 23:08:20 ESTStudent Interpretations of Partial DerivativesWe present results from an investigation into how students interpret partial derivatives at different points in their undergraduate career. We gave a long-answer survey to students that asked them to explain the meaning of the derivative in three different contexts. The survey was given near the beginning of a multivariable calculus class and at the start and end of a year-long junior-level physics sequence. We found two common overarching interpretations of the derivative: one corresponding to "slope" and the other to "change." We discuss the results using a concept image framework based on the work of Zandieh. We also note differences in the response patterns of the students in the mathematics and physics courses and differences in how students interpret the derivative across different representations of functions.
https://www.compadre.org/PER/items/detail.cfm?ID=14584
https://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=14584&DocID=4761https://www.compadre.org/PER/bulletinboard/Thread.cfm?ID=14584Education Foundations/Cognition/Cognition DevelopmentThu, 01 Mar 2018 22:55:14 ESTChanging Student Conceptions of Newton's Laws Using Interactive Video VignettesChanging students' incorrect conceptions in physics is a difficult process and has been studied for many years. Using a framework of elicit, confront, resolve, and reflect, this study analyzed student experiences with two Interactive Video Vignettes designed to change student misconceptions regarding Newton's Second and Third Laws using a fully integrated mixed methods design. This paper explores how differences in how students experienced the framework impacted how much they were able to change their inaccurate conceptions of Newton's Laws.
https://www.compadre.org/PER/items/detail.cfm?ID=14585
https://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=14585&DocID=4762https://www.compadre.org/PER/bulletinboard/Thread.cfm?ID=14585Education Foundations/Assessment/Conceptual AssessmentThu, 01 Mar 2018 22:51:35 ESTMultiple tools for visualizing equipotential surfaces: Optimizing for instructional goalsCurriculum developers are interested in how to leverage various instructional tools - like whiteboards, Mathematica notebooks, and tangible models - to maximize learning. Instructional tools mediate student learning and different tools support learning differently. We are interested in understanding how the features of instructional tools influence student engagement during classroom activities and how to design activities to match tools with instructional goals. In this paper, we explore these questions by examining an instructional activity designed to help advanced undergraduate physics students understand and visualize the electrostatic potential. During the activity, students use three different tools: a whiteboard, a pre-programmed Mathematica notebook, and a 3D surface model of the electric potential. We discuss how the tools may be used to address the the instructional goals of the activity. We illustrate this discussion with examples from classroom video.
https://www.compadre.org/PER/items/detail.cfm?ID=14590
https://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=14590&DocID=4767https://www.compadre.org/PER/bulletinboard/Thread.cfm?ID=14590Education Practices/Instructional Material Design/ActivityThu, 01 Mar 2018 22:47:00 ESTStudent conceptual resources for understanding mechanical wave propagationHere we present preliminary results of our investigation of introductory physics students' conceptual resources for understanding mechanical wave propagation. We analyzed a total of 446 student responses to a conceptual question about pulse propagation and identified two common, prevalent resources: (1) students treat pulses as macroscopic objects moving through a medium whose properties affect their speed, and (2) students treat pulses as propagating local disturbances. We illustrate some of the ways in which these resources manifested in student responses and discuss how we see such ideas as continuous with scientific understanding.
https://www.compadre.org/PER/items/detail.cfm?ID=14592
https://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=14592&DocID=4769https://www.compadre.org/PER/bulletinboard/Thread.cfm?ID=14592Education Foundations/Problem Solving/Representational UseThu, 01 Mar 2018 22:42:54 ESTStudent Objections to and Understanding of Non-Cartesian Unit Vector Notation in Upper-Level E&MThe upper level E&M course (i.e. based on Griffiths) involves the extensive integration of vector calculus concepts and notation with abstract physics concepts like field and potential. We hope that students take what they have learned in their math classes and apply it to help represent and make sense of the physics. Previous work showed that physics majors at different levels (pre-E&M course, post-E&M course, 1st year graduate students) had great difficulty using non-Cartesian unit vector symbols appropriately in a particular context. Since then we have developed a series of problems they work on in groups and discuss as a whole class to help them confront and resolve some of their difficulties. This paper presents those problems, typical in-class group responses, and three years of post-test data. Results show that students have (i) a very strong initial negative reaction to the vagueness of the <style type="text/css">.vectorhat { display:inline-block; position:relative; width:auto; } .vectorhat::before { content: "^"; position:absolute; margin-top:-.35em; width:100%; text-align:center; }</style><em class="vectorhat">r</em> symbol, and (ii) an improved functional understanding of the notation as demonstrated by a better ability to use the symbols appropriately.
https://www.compadre.org/PER/items/detail.cfm?ID=14599
https://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=14599&DocID=4776https://www.compadre.org/PER/bulletinboard/Thread.cfm?ID=14599Education Foundations/Student Characteristics/AffectThu, 01 Mar 2018 22:32:18 ESTAnalyzing student understanding of vector field plots with respect to divergenceA survey with N = 39 second-year students demonstrates that most students fail to relate graphical vector field representations to the concept of divergence. Even after providing them with two visual strategies (integral vs. derivative strategy), students still struggle to indicate whether vector fields have zero or non-zero divergence. To gain further insight into student reasoning, we captured their visual attention on the field plot via eye tracking. Fixation patterns and relevant eye-tracking measures reveal that both visual strategies are cognitively processed differently, and that success of either strategy depends on field characteristics. Future research will be outlined.
https://www.compadre.org/PER/items/detail.cfm?ID=14609
https://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=14609&DocID=4786https://www.compadre.org/PER/bulletinboard/Thread.cfm?ID=14609Education Foundations/CognitionThu, 01 Mar 2018 22:29:29 ESTComparing Students performance in QM between China and USThis paper discusses a comparative study on American and Chinese students' conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics. We administered the Quantum Mechanics Survey (QMS) to over 400 undergraduate students from 10 universities in China and the United States. The results showed that students in American universities performed better than their Chinese peers on the QMS.
https://www.compadre.org/PER/items/detail.cfm?ID=14660
https://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=14660&DocID=4837https://www.compadre.org/PER/bulletinboard/Thread.cfm?ID=14660Education Foundations/Societal Issues/International IssuesThu, 01 Mar 2018 22:24:27 ESTStudent determination of differential area elements in upper-division physicsGiven the significance of understanding differential area vectors in multivariable coordinate systems to the learning of electricity and magnetism (E&M), students in junior-level E&M were interviewed about E&M tasks involving integration over areas. In one task, students set up an integral for the magnetic flux through a square loop. A second task asked students to set up an integral to solve for the electric field from a circular sheet of charge. Analysis identified several treatments of the differential area: (1) a product of differential lengths, (2) a sum of differential lengths, (3) a product of a constant length with differential length in one direction, (4) a derivative of the expression for a given area, and (5) the full area.
https://www.compadre.org/PER/items/detail.cfm?ID=14644
https://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=14644&DocID=4821https://www.compadre.org/PER/bulletinboard/Thread.cfm?ID=14644Education Foundations/Problem Solving/HeuristicsThu, 01 Mar 2018 22:14:36 ESTModifying the Thermodynamic Concept Survey: Preliminary resultsThe Thermodynamic Concept Survey is a multiple-choice test used in the Physics Education Research community. Analyzing this survey, we detected two issues that made it difficult to evaluate students' understanding on the survey's topics: (1) numerous items present only responses of the type: "increase", "decrease" or "remains unchanged" without including the reasoning that led to these answers, and (2) several questions have design problems. Considering these two issues, we decided to undertake a research project with the objective of modifying and refining this survey. In this article, we present preliminary results of this ongoing investigation regarding those two issues. In the first part, we illustrate the modifications made in some items, describing the modifications made in four of them. In the second part, we illustrate critical design problems in some items, describing in detail a problem in one of them. The results and discussion may be useful for researchers using the test as an assessment tool.
https://www.compadre.org/PER/items/detail.cfm?ID=14567
https://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=14567&DocID=4744https://www.compadre.org/PER/bulletinboard/Thread.cfm?ID=14567Education Foundations/Assessment/InstrumentsThu, 01 Mar 2018 22:08:28 ESTThe Prevalence of Selected Buoyancy Alternate Conceptions at Two CollegesReview of prior studies, mostly at the K-12 level, along with long-answer responses and interviews given to undergraduates at Grove City College, have identified over 150 alternate conceptions about buoyancy. In order to probe how prevalent some of these are in the college-age population, we designed and administered multiple-choice and free-response questions to students at both the University of Washington and Grove City College. This paper presents some of those results.
https://www.compadre.org/PER/items/detail.cfm?ID=14658
https://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=14658&DocID=4835https://www.compadre.org/PER/bulletinboard/Thread.cfm?ID=14658Education Foundations/Alternative ConceptionsThu, 01 Mar 2018 21:57:37 ESTParticipants' perceptions of the Faculty Online Learning Community (FOLC) experienceWe report on a new model of educational reform, Faculty Online Learning Communities (FOLCs), that are based on providing and nurturing virtual communities of support for faculty engaged in learning about and implementing research-based teaching techniques. Data collected to date indicate that the FOLC model increases participants' willingness to try new techniques, helps build their confidence to work through difficulties, increases their level of reflection about their teaching, and is viewed by participants as a positive experience that is worthy of their time. We conclude that this model is a promising addition to reform efforts built on standard Development and Dissemination (D&D) models of change.
https://www.compadre.org/PER/items/detail.cfm?ID=14578
https://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=14578&DocID=4755https://www.compadre.org/PER/bulletinboard/Thread.cfm?ID=14578Education Practices/Professional DevelopmentThu, 01 Mar 2018 21:46:55 ESTA comparison of the impact of 3 forms of "hands-on" activities for learners with different scientific reasoning abilitiesWe have developed a set of activities designed to aid student understanding of torque and center of gravity. The activities exist in three forms, each appropriate for a group member engaged in a "hands-on" classroom experience: embodied, involving balancing objects on one's hands, traditional hands-on, involving a meter stick balanced on a fulcrum, and observation of an experimenter performing the embodied activity. Our study is outside of the classroom and includes two populations of learners with significantly different abilities at pre-test. We find that the different types of training impact the two populations differently. In particular, participants with lower overall pre-test accuracies who observe the embodied activity show poorer gains on torque questions requiring proportional reasoning than participants with hands-on or embodied training, while observer participants with higher overall pre-test accuracies achieve high gains on even the more challenging transfer problems.
https://www.compadre.org/PER/items/detail.cfm?ID=14587
https://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=14587&DocID=4764https://www.compadre.org/PER/bulletinboard/Thread.cfm?ID=14587Education Foundations/Assessment/Conceptual AssessmentThu, 01 Mar 2018 21:35:09 ESTStudent responses to chain rule problems in thermodynamicsStudents often struggle with the many partial derivatives used in the study of thermodynamics. This project explores how students respond to chain rule problems in an upper-level undergraduate thermodynamics course. This project's dataset is composed of anonymized student responses to two such problems. We used an emergent coding method to sort responses by solution method. Observed solution methods include variable and differential substitution, implicit differentiation, differential division, and chain rule diagrams. The change of students' solution methods between as signments was also observed. Responses were later analyzed to identify conceptual errors . Students make specific errors that provide insight into their lack of conceptual understanding of the solution methods.
https://www.compadre.org/PER/items/detail.cfm?ID=14588
https://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=14588&DocID=4765https://www.compadre.org/PER/bulletinboard/Thread.cfm?ID=14588Education Foundations/Problem Solving/ProcessesThu, 01 Mar 2018 21:24:57 ESTDesign strategies for research-based physics activitiesPhysics education researchers often design activities, then test whether the activities are effective in helping students learn. Many published activities have been described in the physics education literature. However, some instructors may want to create their own activities; these instructors may want to know about how the published activities were designed. To this end, we have interviewed several prominent designers and analyzed their publications as well as an American Association of Physics Teachers' report on lab design. This paper focuses on a particular set of design philosophies that were important to these designers. "Revisiting cycles," which address a single question in depth, were a common theme. We also argue that designers' view of conceptual learning and of "thinking like a physicist" shapes their design plans.
https://www.compadre.org/PER/items/detail.cfm?ID=14611
https://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=14611&DocID=4788https://www.compadre.org/PER/bulletinboard/Thread.cfm?ID=14611Education Practices/Curriculum Development/LaboratoryThu, 01 Mar 2018 19:55:19 ESTStudent Mental Models about Conductors and DielectricsWe classified students' mental models on conductors and dielectrics into four levels that vary progressively from naive views to scientifically acceptable views, namely non-model, non-scientific model, flawed-scientific model, and scientific model. A total of 137 Chinese students from an introductory physics class completed a questionnaire that targets learners' conceptual understanding of conductors and dielectrics. For the questions on conductors, about 20% of the students were at the non-model level, and almost 15% of the students constructed a non-scientific model and believed that both electrons and protons could move in a conductor. Those with a flawed-scientific model (35%) were unsure about the motion of the particles. Only 30% of the students had a scientific model. For the dielectrics questions, over 30% of the students were in the non-model level; about 55% of the students had a non-scientific model and thought that charges could not move in a dielectric. The remaining 10% of the students used a flawed-scientific model.
https://www.compadre.org/PER/items/detail.cfm?ID=14671
https://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=14671&DocID=4848https://www.compadre.org/PER/bulletinboard/Thread.cfm?ID=14671Education Foundations/Learning Theory/Cognitive ModelingThu, 01 Mar 2018 19:46:19 ESTExploring instructors’ interpretation of electric field linesElectric field lines are a typical representation for the electric field concept. University students often misinterpret electric field lines, which may cause them difficulties understanding the electric field. The objective of this study is to explore how introductory electricity and magnetism instructors interpret electric field lines. We interviewed four instructors about several electrostatic concepts, to interpret a diagram and to discuss the electric field line representation. We focus on instructors' interpretation of the diagram, which consisted of the electric field lines of a quadrupole without displaying charges. We asked instructors to interpret the diagram and to compare the magnitude of the electric field at two positions. All four instructors tried to identify the sources of electric field as their first approach, while their answers varied for the comparison of magnitudes. Instructors' interpretations of electric field lines may elucidate why students often misinterpret this representation of the electric field.
https://www.compadre.org/PER/items/detail.cfm?ID=14670
https://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=14670&DocID=4847https://www.compadre.org/PER/bulletinboard/Thread.cfm?ID=14670Education Foundations/Teacher Characteristics/Content KnowledgeThu, 01 Mar 2018 19:31:18 ESTModel-based inquiry vs. Traditional computer simulation-based instruction: Which can better help students construct the quantum-mechanical model of an atom?Research suggests that students' conceptual models play an essential role in their understanding. Therefore, model-based inquiry has been considered as an instructional method in which learners have the opportunity to actively build and use their models. In this study, we investigated students' model evolution during their learning experience with model-based instruction. We analyzed students' model transition process as they engaged with a sequence of activities supported with physical, computer-based, and mathematical models. We compared the results with students' who received traditional computer-based instruction. Results show that students who received model-based inquiry instruction increased the sophistication of their explanation and gained more accurate understanding compared to traditional compute-based instruction group.
https://www.compadre.org/PER/items/detail.cfm?ID=14668
https://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=14668&DocID=4845https://www.compadre.org/PER/bulletinboard/Thread.cfm?ID=14668Education Practices/Active Learning/ModelingThu, 01 Mar 2018 19:21:06 ESTQuantum Mechanics Students' Understanding of NormalizationNormalization is a particularly important concept within quantum mechanics due to the probabilistic nature of quantum systems. However, students' understanding of normalization has not been an explicit focus in past studies. In this paper, I will present a preliminary framework for students' understanding of mathematical norms and normalization of vectors, using interviews with quantum mechanics students to illustrate how the framework can be used to model and make sense of students' reasoning about the normalization of vectors.
https://www.compadre.org/PER/items/detail.cfm?ID=14661
https://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=14661&DocID=4838https://www.compadre.org/PER/bulletinboard/Thread.cfm?ID=14661Mathematical Tools/Vector AlgebraThu, 01 Mar 2018 19:06:05 ESTModels of Math Use in Non-Academic Workplace SettingsIt is important to develop models about how mathematics is used in professional physics settings. Existing models of math use focus on mathematical modeling for problem solving. However, workplace problems often include design problems, troubleshooting, and more. To study workplace mathematics, we conducted hour-long, semi-structured interviews with employees at photonics and optics companies in Rochester, NY. We applied an emergent coding process to classify instances of math in the workplace, and present two models of mathematics use within workplace tasks. We describe a four-phase engineer task consisting of defining the problem, designing a product, testing the product, and communicating results. A common technician task replaces the design phase with manufacturing the product. Workplace math is embedded in these phases through various representations such as simulations, schematics, and machining codes. Educators should consider using diverse problem types since they require additional mathematical representations and techniques to be brought to the forefront.
https://www.compadre.org/PER/items/detail.cfm?ID=14667
https://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=14667&DocID=4844https://www.compadre.org/PER/bulletinboard/Thread.cfm?ID=14667Education Practices/CareersThu, 01 Mar 2018 18:56:08 EST