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Abstract Title: Methodologies for Video-Based Research in PER
Abstract: More and more physics education researchers use audiovisual recordings of physics learning environments as their primary data source. Approaches to video-based analysis in the PER community encompass a wide range of methods, both qualitative and quantitative in nature. This symposium will provide an opportunity to closely examine a range of video-based research methodologies. We will reflect on methods and their theoretical framing with a focus on the different kinds of questions different approaches are particularly equipped to answer, how research design differs across methodologies, and what claims about knowledge and learning can look like.
Abstract Type: Talk Symposium

Author/Organizer Information

Primary Contact: Benedikt Harrer
San José State University
One Washington Square
San José, CA 95192-0106
Phone: 4089245284
and Co-Presenter(s)
Luke Conlin, Stanford University (Co-Organizer)
Eric Kuo, Stanford University (Co-Presenter)
Ayush Gupta, University of Maryland (Co-Presenter)
Virginia Flood, University of California, Berkeley (Co-Author of Harrer's presentation)

Symposium Specific Information

Discussant: Rachel Scherr, Seattle Pacific University
Moderator: Benedikt Harrer and Luke Conlin
Presentation 1 Title: Designing for discovery in semi-structured clinical interviews
Presentation 1 Authors: Eric Kuo
Presentation 1 Abstract: There are two important affordances of interviews I take advantage of in my work. The first is the ability to respond adaptively to interviewee's ideas. Rather than setting activities and research questions in stone beforehand, clinical interviews afford a mix of preparation and adaptation. This allows me to, in-the-moment, probe interesting patterns of reasoning and understanding that might emerge unexpectedly. The second affordance of interviews is that they allow for focused video data collection. This allows me to capture an interview without needing to pre-define what aspects of student reasoning I want to capture. To illustrate these points, I'll provide an example of how I designed, performed, and analyzed interviews around quantitative approximations in math and physics problems.
Presentation 2 Title: On moral stances and perspective-taking through video analysis
Presentation 2 Authors: Ayush Gupta
Presentation 2 Abstract: Video analysis of students engaged in physics discussions has led to many insights into how students think about and participate in explanation-building and problem-solving in physics. However, analysis of video-records of students' discussions on topics beyond physics content can illustrate expansive uses of video-analysis tools, while simultaneously expanding our toolbox for analyzing students' understanding of physics. I present our ongoing analysis of video-records of engineering students engaged in discussions of socio-scientific issues in clinical focus-group settings, focused on the shifting moral and epistemic stances adopted by students in the discussion. Merging their stance-taking dynamic with fine-grained attention to the content of their talk provides insights into characterizing what perspectives students adopt in their utterances and how these might (or might not) align with stakeholders in the socio-scientific issue. The analysis highlights the role of attending to word choice, gestures, postures, talk sequences, and register changes in making claims about students' stances and perspectives.
Presentation 3 Title: "I have a good idea!": Insights from video analysis that count even if they cannot be counted
Presentation 3 Authors: Luke Conlin
Presentation 3 Abstract: Instructors often use engineering design projects to provide students with opportunities to make sense of physics concepts, but do students take them up in this way? I will report on research that approached this question via two contrasting methods: a code-oriented approach based on a classroom observation protocol as well as an insight-oriented approach based on video analysis (Scherr, 2009). The code-oriented approach revealed a rare moment of scientific sense-making during a 6th-grade pneumatics project in which a vocal male student reported having a "good idea." The insight-oriented approach of this good idea revealed that the idea was not Roger's alone – a quieter female student had made a subtle yet substantive contribution that went uncounted. This case illustrates how code-oriented approaches can complement insight-oriented video analysis, while highlighting how some insights can emerge more readily from video data than code counting, with implications for equity in engineering and science classrooms.
Presentation 4 Title: Multimodal analysis of the interactional work of transforming participation structures in a middle-school classroom
Presentation 4 Authors: Benedikt W. Harrer and Virginia J. Flood
Presentation 4 Abstract: Participation frameworks in classrooms are co-constructed and co-maintained by the interactional work of teachers and students. We show how sequential, multimodal analysis of video records can reveal the embodied resources participants enlist to achieve transformations in participation frameworks during group-work when a teacher has been called over to help in a middle school Project-Based Inquiry Science (PBIS) course. Our ethnomethodological analysis traces the process of how an epistemically asymmetrical, teacher-led Initiation, Response, Evaluation (IRE) sequence is re-negotiated into an epistemically symmetrical, student-led inquiry sequence that eventually excludes the teachers' contributions. Our multimodal analysis is able to show how students' sensitivity and responsiveness to prosodic cues enable them to differentiate known-answer questions from felicitous, information-seeking questions. Creating opportunities for and sustaining student-led inquiry sequences are interactional achievements rather than solely the achievement of curricular design and therefore require fine-grained video analyses of classroom interaction.

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