APS Excellence in Physics Education Award
November 2019 Science SPORE Prize
November 2011 The Open Source Physics Project is supported by NSF DUE-0442581.

## EJSS Examples

• 1D Kinematics of a Moving Car JS Model: 1D Kinematics Simulation -
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• Acid Strong Base Titrations JS Model: Titrations Simulation - The Acid Strong Base Titrations JavaScript Model show how to estimate the concentration of the acid in a given sample.
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• Arenstorf Orbit JS Model: Arenstorf Orbit Simulation - This simulation solves the Arenstorf orbit model using a variable step Runge-Kutta algorithm.
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• Asset Exchange Model Package: AEM Introduction - An introduction to a simple model of economic activity predicts that inequality is a general and natural occurrence and is very difficult to prevent. Unlike climate models, for example, which require much background in science and very powerful computers, the models we will discuss can be simulated on a smart phone, tablet, or a laptop, and we encourage you to play with the simulations and explore their results.
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• Asset Exchange Model Package: Bibliography -
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• Asset Exchange Model Package: Discussion of the Gini results - The results of simulations using the models we have discussed show that for proportional distribution of tax revenue, the Gini coefficient is greater than 0.9 for income and sales taxes and about 0.65 for a wealth tax.
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• Asset Exchange Model Package: Gini Coefficient: A measure of inequality - By looking at the distribution of wealth among the agents we were able to conclude that various forms of taxation and distribution can lead to greater or lesser wealth equality. However, it is useful to introduce an explicit measure of wealth inequality so that we can reach more quantitative conclusions.
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• Asset Exchange Model Package: How can we reduce wealth inequality? - We next consider some generalizations of the model to see what can be done to reduce the excessive wealth inequality that occurs. One possible way of avoiding wealth accumulation is to not allow agents to lose a percentage of their wealth on most economic exchanges.
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• Asset Exchange Model Package: Simulation: Agent Wealth Evolution - Why does one agent obtain almost all of the wealth? The reason is that a percentage of the smaller wealth of the two agents is always transferred. Hence, richer agents lose a smaller percentage of their wealth compared to poorer agents. As most of the agents become poorer, richer agents rarely transfer wealth to other rich agents and hence rarely lose a significant percentage of their wealth. Run the model and notice that before one agent ultimately receives almost all of the wealth.
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• Asset Exchange Model Package: Simulation: Agent Wealth with Taxes - This simulation illustrates the effects of taxation and revenue distribution works in the same way as before, but now you have a choice between sales, income and wealth taxes, and between the two types of tax revenue distribution. Each agent begins with one unit of wealth, which we again assume to be \$100,000. Try each of the different types of taxes with each type of tax revenue distribution.
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• Asset Exchange Model Package: Simulation: Economic Mobility - This simulation explores how likely is it that an agent will migrate from the bottom quartile to the top quartile in an economy with and without taxes and wealth distribution. Most Americans believe that if we are born to a poor family, we have a reasonable chance of reaching the middle class or better if we obtain a good education and work hard. The ability to change our economic status is known as economic mobility.
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• Asset Exchange Model Package: Simulation: Gini Coefficient - It is useful to introduce an explicit measure of wealth inequality so that we can reach more quantitative conclusions. A common measure of wealth inequality is the Gini coefficient (or Gini index) G. A small value of G indicates a more equal wealth distribution with G=0 corresponding to complete equality. In contrast, G=1 corresponds to one person having all the wealth. The Gini coefficient is about 0.80 for the United States.
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• Asset Exchange Model Package: Simulation: Pareto's Principle - Pareto's principle (or law) is a rule of thumb that states that roughly 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes. This principle is named after the Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto, who observed in 1906 that 80% of the land in Italy was owned by 20% of the population and that 20% of the pea pods in his garden contained 80% of the peas. This simulation explores if our simulating reproduces Pareto's principle.
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• Asset Exchange Model Package: Simulation: Power Law Wealth Distribution - Does our model predict the distribution of wealth observed in actual societies? Vilfredo Pareto claimed that the probability P of a person having an income greater than x follows a power law and he believed that the power law coefficient ? has a value of 2.5. This simulation tests the applicability of both power law and exponential distribution functions to our simple model.
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• Asset Exchange Model Package: Simulation: Ten Agent Economy - The Ten Agent Economy shows the change in wealth as agents interact in the AEM economy. The goal of the model is not to reproduce the specifics of particular societies, but to provide insight into their general behavior. The beauty of the model is how little is needed to produce results that help us understand why wealth inequality occurs. The model consists of many exchanges of wealth between two agents chosen at random.
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• Asset Exchange Model Package: Simulation: Time Evolution Bias - This simulation plots the wealth of N agents after every timestep. Every agent begins with one wealth unit which corresponds to \$100,000. Notice that the wealth of each agent initially appears to be a random walk around the initial wealth. Sometimes an agent gains and sometimes he or she looses. But over time the their wealth begins to diverge. This divergence is caused by a subtle time-reversal asymmetry in the trading model.
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• Asset Exchange Model Package: Simulation: Wealth Table - How much greater initial wealth does an agent need to accumulate almost all the wealth after many wealth transfers? All agents begin with equal wealth but you can change the initial wealth of any agent before running the simulation to observe the effect of inheritance. The simulation shows the agent wealth after every timestep.
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• Asset Exchange Model Package: Wealth and Income in The U.S. - There are many resources that document the nature of wealth and income inequality in the United States and elsewhere.
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• Asset Exchange Model Package: Wealth distributions from the model - The key idea of the model is that usually one agent gains and one agent loses when they engage in economic activity. If you buy something, you give some of your wealth to the store in the form of money and you receive a product in exchange, which adds to your wealth.
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• Asset Exchange Model Package: What does the model predict? - Why does one agent obtain almost all of the wealth? The reason is that a percentage of the smaller wealth of the two agents is always transferred.
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• Asset Exchange Model Package: What have we learned? - A summary of what you might have found from running the simulations.
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• Astronomical Parallax 2D JS Model: Astronomical Parallax 2D Simulation -
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• Ball on a Moving Ring JS Model: Ball on a Moving Ring Simulation. -
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• Ball Toss Video JS Model: Ball Toss Video Example - The Ball Toss Video Model demonstrates how embed a video into a JavaScript EjsS model.
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• Beach Ball JS Model: Beach Ball Simulation - The Beach Ball JavaScript Model simulates the dynamics of a thrown beach ball. Because of its relatively low mass (compared to its size), subtle effects that are important in sports become exaggerated in the beach ball’s motion. Drag slows the ball down, buoyancy makes the ball “float” and the Magnus effect puts a curve on the ball’s trajectory.
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• Block Sliding On An Incline Plane JS Model: Block Sliding On An Incline Plane Mobile Model - The Block Sliding On An Incline Plane mobile JavaScript model illustrates the forces and dynamics of a block sliding on a surface. This simulation uses the accelerometer on mobile devices to read the direction of the gravitation field g. You may need to lock the orientation of your screen to maintain a fixed view as you rotate your device.
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• Block Sliding On An Incline Plane JS Model: Find the coefficient of friction problem. - Find the static coefficient of friction for the Block Sliding On An Incline. This simulation uses the accelerometer on your mobile device to read the direction of the gravitation field g.
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• Boltzmann H-theorem: Approaching Equilibrium Model: Approaching Equilibrium Simulation -
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• Bound Eigenstate Superposition JS Model: Bound Eigenstate Superposition Simulation - The Bound Eigenstate Superposition simulation illustrates the fundamental building blocks of one-dimensional quantum mechanics, the energy eigenfunctions and energy eigenvalues.
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• Browser Capabilities JS Model: Browser Capabilities - Show browser and sensor properties.
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• Bungee Jump JS Model: Bungee Energy Model - A simulation of a bungee jump with fewer controls than the original Bungee Jump JS Model. For use with the Bungee Energy Worksheet.
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• Bungee Jump JS Model: Bungee Jump Lab - Use this simulation, in conjunction with your rubber band length L (m) and spring constant k (N/m) values, to determine the correct length of linked rubber bands that will allow for a safe jump.
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• Bungee Jump JS Model: Bungee Jump Simulation - A simulation of a bungee jumper falling from a tower with a fixed length of bungee cord.
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• Bungee Jump with Hysteresis JS Model: Bungee Jump with Hysteresis Simulation -
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• Celestial Sphere with Analemma JS Model: Celestial Sphere and Analemma Simulation - This program simulates the Two Sphere Universe theory of the Ancient Greeks.
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• Central Force JS Model: Central Force Simulation - This simulation computes the trajectory of a particle acted on by an arbitrary central force.
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• Charged Particle Scattering in a Central Field JS Model: Charged Particle Scattering Simulation -
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• CSS JS Layout Examples Package: Flow Layout Example - A template for how to display six panels in a flow layout using the CSS display:inline-block selector.
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• CSS JS Layout Examples Package: Horizontal Layout Example - A template for how to create a two plot horizontal layout using the CSS display:inline selector.
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• CSS JS Layout Examples Package: Java-like Border Layout Example - A template for how to create a Java-like border layout using css <table> tags.
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• CSS JS Layout Examples Package: Relative Position Layout Example - A template for how to position an element using the CSS position:relative selector.
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• CSS JS Layout Examples Package: Resize Panel Simulation - A simple example that shows how to change a panel size and read windows and screen properties. Note that the scale function is called after the size is changed in the changeSize() function.
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• CSS JS Layout Examples Package: Vertical Layout Example - A template for how to create a two plot vertical layout using the CSS display:block selector.
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• Data Fitting JS Model: Data Fitting - This simulations illustrates how to use least squares fitting to find the best polynomial fit to x,y data.
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• Differential X-Ray Absorption JS Model: Differential X-Ray Absorption Simulation - Provides a qualitative exploration of how X-rays interact with varying material properties and how this difference can produce contrast in the x-ray image.
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• Diffusion of a 2D Gas JS Model: Diffusion Simulation -
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• Doppler Effect JS Model: Doppler Effect Simulation - The Doppler Effect simulation shows five different animations with different combinations of moving/stationary sources/detectors. The final animation shows what happens when a source exceeds the speed of sound.
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• Double Slit Wave-Particle JS Model: Double Slit Wave-Particle Simulation - This simulation demonstrates how matter and light display both wave- and particle-like properties in single and double slit experiments.
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• Drag The Monster Truck JS Model: Drag the Monster Truck. - Use the mouse to drag the slider or the rear bumper (red ball) of the toy monster truck.
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• Driven Simple Harmonic Oscillator Comparison JS Model: Driven Simple Harmonic Oscillator Comparison -
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• Earth and Moon in 3D JS Model: Earth and Moon 3D Simulation -
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• Earth Phases JS Model: Earth Phases Simulation - The Earth Phases Model illustrates the changing regions of darkness and light on the Earth over the course of a single day, or over the course of an entire year
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• Elastic Wave on a String JS Model: Wave on String Simulation -
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• Eratosthenes JS Model: Eratosthenes JS Model - This page shows the Eratosthenes JS Model running in a HTML page.
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• Exoplanet Detection JS: Radial Velocity Method: Exoplanet Detection JS: Radial Velocity 51 Pegasi b - This is a version of the Exoplanet Detection JS: Radial Velocity Method simulation that depicts the 51 Pegasi b system, for which Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz used the radial velocity method and the Doppler effect to detect the first exoplanet. For this discovery, Mayor and Queloz were awarded the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physics.
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• Exoplanet Detection JS: Radial Velocity Method: Exoplanet Detection JS: Radial Velocity Method -
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• Exoplanet Detection JS: Transit Method: Exoplanet Detection JS: Transit Method -
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• Falling Slinky JS Model: Falling Slinky Simulation - The Falling Slinky model approximates a slinky using twenty masses connected with light springs.
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• Faraday's Law JS Model: Faraday's Law Simulation - The Faraday's Law JavaScript simulation shows how a changing magnetic flux creates an electromotive force (an emf), -dΦ/dt = emf.
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• Ferris Wheel JS Model: Ferris Wheel JS Simulation - Example of the Ferris Wheel JS Simulation embedded in an html page.
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• Ferris Wheel JS Model: Simple Ferris Wheel Simulation - The Simple Ferris Wheel JS Model asks the user to find find the net force on a rider at various times during the ride. This simulation has been used as a pre-lab and as a concept question at Davidson College.
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• Find the Focal Length JS Model: Find the Focal Length - Find the Focal Length Model
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• Flat Mirror JS Model: Flat Mirror JS Model -
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• Flight Dynamics 3D WebGL Gimbal JS Model: Flight Dynamics 3D WebGL Gimbal Model Source Code - Simulate the effect of yaw, pitch, and roll.
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• Four-Spring Accelerometer JS Model: Four-Spring Accelerometer Simulation - The simulation displays the forces and dynamics of a small mass connected to four walls by springs as the mobile device is accelerated.
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• Free Fall 3D JS Model: Free Fall 3D JSimlation - The Free Fall 3D Model displays the three-dimensional dynamics of a ball dropped near the surface of Earth onto a platform.
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• Free Fall Ride JS Model: Free Fall Ride Simulation - Design an amusement park ride by adjusting the height versus time graph.
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• Free Particle Eigenstate Superposition JS Model: Free Particle Eigenstate Superposition Simulation - The Free Particle Energy Eigenstates simulation shows the time evolution of a superposition of free particle energy eigenstates.
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• Free Particle Wavepacket JS Model: Free Particle Wavepacket Simulation - The free particle wave packet program displays the time evolution of a free (V = 0 everywhere) initial Gaussian wave packet in position space.
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• Frogger JS Model: Frogger Game - Move the frog safely to a lily pad after crossing a road and a river.
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• Galileo's Sunspots JS Model: Sunspots Simulation - The Galileo's Sunspots Model illustrates the motion of sunspots across the face of the Sun as seen from a telescope on Earth.
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• Galton Board JS Model: Galton Board Simulation - A Galton Board simulaiton shows a vertical board with N rows of pegs onto which a ball is dropped.
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• Game of Life JS Model: Game of Life Simulation - A JavaScript implementation of the popular 2D cellular automata Game of Life.
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• Ghostly Images JS Package: Acceleration Simulation - This program simulates a ball moving with constant acceleration. As the ball moves, it drops "ghost" images at equal time intervals and records the velocity.
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• Ghostly Images JS Package: Ghostly Images Simulation - This program simulates a ball moving with constant speed. As the ball moves, it drops "ghost" images at equal time intervals and records data in a table.
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• Ghostly Images JS Package: Match The Plot Simulation - This program simulates a ball moving with constant speed. As the ball moves, it drops "ghost" images at equal time intervals. It shows several position time plots.
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• Half Atwood Machine JS Model: Half Atwood Machine Simulation -

The Atwood machine (or Atwood's machine) was invented in 1784 by Rev. George Atwood as a laboratory experiment to verify the mechanical laws of motion with constant acceleration. Atwood's machine is a common classroom demonstration used to illustrate principles of classical mechanics.

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• Interference in Time and Beats JS Model: Interference in Time and Beats Simulation - The Interference in Time and Beats JavaScript Model simultaneously plays two sounds with frequency fA and fB and displays the signal recorded by a nearby microphone.
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• Lenses and Mirrors JS Models: Small Angle Concave Mirror Simulation - Displays the principal ray diagram for a concave mirror.
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• Lenses and Mirrors JS Models: Small Angle Converging Lens Simulation - Displays the principal ray diagram for a converging lens.
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• Lenses and Mirrors JS Models: Small Angle Convex Mirror Simulation - Displays the principal ray diagram for a convex mirror.
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• Lenses and Mirrors JS Models: Small Angle Diverging Lens Simulation - Displays the principal ray diagram for a concave mirror.
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• Lunar Month JS Model: Lunar Month JS Model -
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• Magnetic Field JS Model: Magnetic Field Simulation - The Magnetic Field Demo shows the field of a bar magnet, a coil, and Earth. It has a movable compass that reports the field magnitude (strength) and a grid of magnetic needles that show the field direction. The magnetic field is modeled using magnetic dipoles underneath the image.
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• Mass and Spring Simple Harmonic Oscillator JS Model: Horizontal Mass and Spring Simulation with Accelerometer - The Horizontal Mass and Spring Harmonic Oscillator mobile JavaScript model illustrates the forces and dynamics of a simple oscillator.
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• Mass and Spring Simple Harmonic Oscillator JS Model: Simple Horizontal SHO Simulation - Simple horizontal SHO simulation for in-class discussion.
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• Mass and Spring Simple Harmonic Oscillator JS Model: Simple Vertical SHO Simulation - Simple simulation without narrative for classroom discussion.
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• Mass and Spring Simple Harmonic Oscillator JS Model: Vertical Mass and Spring Simulation with Accelerometer - Shake your mobile device and observe the oscillator motion.
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• Microphone Sound Analyzer JS Model: Microphone Sound Analyzer Simulation -
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• Missile Command JS Model: Missile Command Simulation - The Missile Command game inspired in the original game designed by Atari, Inc.
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• Mobile Device Accelerometer JS Model: Device Permissions API Test -
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• Mobile Device Accelerometer JS Model: Mobile Device Accelerometer -
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• Molecular Dynamics Exploration JS Model: Molecular Dynamics -
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• Molecular Dynamics Exploration JS Model: Molecular Dynamics Exploration - The Molecular Dynamics Exploration shows the molecular dynamics of simple atoms and molecules in a two-dimensional universe.
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• Molecular Dynamics Exploration JS Model: Molecular Dynamics with Mobile Device Gravity Sensor - Run this simulation and tilt your mobile device.
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• Molecular Dynamics Performance JS Model: Molecular Dynamics Performance Simulation - The Molecular Dynamics JavaScript Performance Model computes the trajectory of particles acted on by a Lennard-Jones force. This simulation is designed to test the speed of JavaScript for a computationally intensive model.
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• Multiple Coin Toss JS Model: Multiple Coin Toss JS Model - Example of the Multiple Coin Toss JS Simulation embedded in an html page.
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• Naked Eye Sidereal and Solar Day JS Model: Naked Eye Sidereal and Solar Day Simulation -
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• Newton's Mountain JS Model: Newton's Mountain JS Model - Example of the Newton’s Mountain JS Simulation embedded in an html page.
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• Northern Horizon Star Motion JS Model: Northern Horizon Star Motion JS Model -
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 1. Introducción al Tutorial Ondas - Ondas: Un Tutorial Interactivo<\i> es un conjunto de 33 ejercicios diseñados para enseñar los fundamentos de la dinámica de las olas. Se inicia con propiedades de onda muy simples y termina con un examen del comportamiento no lineal de ondas. El énfasis aquí está en las propiedades de las ondas que son difíciles de ilustrar en una figura libro de texto estático.
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 10. Adición de ondas lineales (superposición) - Ondas lineales tienen la propiedad, llamada superposición, que sus amplitudes se suman linealmente si llegan al mismo punto en el mismo tiempo. Esta simulación muestra la suma de dos funciones de onda u (x, t) = f (x, t) + g (x, t).
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 11. Interferencia - La simulación de interferencia muestra una vista superior de una fuente de hacer olas en la superficie de un tanque de agua (imaginar aprovechar la superficie de un estanque con el extremo de un palo a intervalos regulares). Los círculos blancos que vienen desde el punto representa las crestas de las olas con las depresiones en el medio. Dos fuentes se pueden ver al mismo tiempo y la separación entre ellos y la longitud de onda de los dos se pueden ajustar.
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 12. Velocidad de grupo - La simulación de velocidad de grupo muestra cómo varias ondas se suman para formar una forma de onda única (llamado el sobre) y cómo podemos cuantificar la velocidad con dos números, la velocidad de grupo de la onda combinada y la velocidad de fase.
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 13. Otras funciones de onda - La otra onda funciones de simulación explora cómo cualquier función de x y t que tiene estas variables en la forma x - v t será una onda en movimiento con una velocidad v.
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 14. Análisis de Fourier y Síntesis - Análisis de Fourier es el proceso de matemáticamente romper una onda compleja en una suma de de senos y cosenos. la síntesis de Fourier es el proceso de construcción de una forma de onda particular, mediante la adición de senos y cosenos. El análisis de Fourier y la síntesis se puede hacer para cualquier tipo de onda, y no sólo las ondas de sonido se muestra en esta simulación.
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 15. Espejos - La exploración de simulación Espejos de reflexión especular plano de aquí para allá, cóncavas, convexas y las superficies.
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 16. Las colisiones con los límites - Las colisiones con los límites de simulación muestra cómo la fase de la onda puede ser diferente después de la reflexión, en función de la superficie de la que reflejan.
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 17. Ondas estacionarias - Esta simulación muestra cómo se forma una onda estacionaria a partir de dos ondas idénticas que se mueven en direcciones opuestas. Para las ondas estacionarias en una cadena los extremos son fijos y no son nodos en los extremos de la cadena. Esto limita las longitudes de onda que son posibles que a su vez determina las frecuencias.
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 18. Refracción - Esta simulación muestra cómo una ola que cambia la velocidad a medida que cruza el límite entre dos materiales también cambiar de dirección si cruza la frontera en un ángulo que no sea perpendicular.
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 19. Lentes - Esta simulación muestra cómo los rayos de luz se empeñan usando la aproximación de lente delgada que asume el espesor de la lente es pequeño en comparación con la curvatura del vidrio.
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 2. Onda sinusoidal - Esta simulación muestra una onda perfecta, suave en el océano lo suficientemente lejos de la costa por lo que no ha empezado a romperse (complicaciones involucradas en la descripción de las ondas reales serán discutidos más adelante en este tutorial).
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 20. Diferencia de caminos e interferencia - Esta simulación muestra dos ondas idénticas que comienzan en diferentes lugares. Una tercera gráfico muestra la suma de estas dos ondas.
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 21. Impedancia - Esta simulación representa una cadena como una fila de masas individuales conectados por resortes invisibles. Waves se reflejan en el medio de esta cadena porque la masa de la cadena es diferente a la izquierda en comparación con la derecha.
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 22. Dispersión de la luz - Esta simulación muestra la luz visible que pasa a través de un prisma. Puede elegir el color y ver lo que el índice es de esa longitud de onda.
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 23. La dispersión de componentes de Fourier - Esta simulación se inicia con los cuatro primeros componentes de la serie de Fourier para una onda cuadrada viajar sin dispersión. Cambiar la frecuencia angular de un componente hace que la función de onda inicial para distorsionar debido a la dispersión.
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 24. Difracción - Esta simulación muestra lo que ocurre a una fuente de luz de onda plana (por debajo de la simulación, no mostrado) a medida que pasa a través de una abertura. La longitud de onda de las olas y el tamaño de la abertura se puede ajustar.
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 25. Efecto Doppler - Este modelos de simulación en el efecto Doppler para el sonido; el círculo negro es la fuente y el círculo rojo es el receptor. Si el origen o el receptor de una onda están en movimiento la longitud de onda aparente y la frecuencia del cambio de onda recibida. Esto es aparente cambio en la frecuencia de una fuente o un observador que se mueve se llama el Efecto Doppler. La velocidad de la onda no se ve afectada por el movimiento de la fuente o receptor y tampoco lo es la amplitud.
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 26. Las ondas electromagnéticas de una comisión de aceleración - Esta simulación muestra una carga positiva aceleración y el campo eléctrico alrededor de ella en dos dimensiones. Debido a que la carga es acelerada habrá una perturbación en el campo. La energía transportada por la perturbación proviene de la energía de entrada necesaria para acelerar la carga.
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 27. Antena - Esta simulación muestra el efecto de una onda que viaja en la dirección x en una segunda carga dentro de una antena de recepción. Sólo se muestra la componente y del cambio en el campo eléctrico (por lo que una frecuencia de oscilación de cero aparecerá nada, porque sólo hay un campo eléctrico constante).
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 28. Las ondas planas electromagnéticas - Esta simulación muestra una onda electromagnética plana que viaja en la dirección y. Ambos campos eléctricos y magnéticos se muestran en la representación 3D.
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 29. Polarización - Esta simulación muestra el componente del campo eléctrico [s] para una onda que viaja en línea recta hacia el observador en la dirección + y. Una onda polarizada se definió anteriormente a ser una onda electromagnética que tiene su campo eléctrico confinado al cambio en una sola dirección. En esta simulación que investigar más a ondas polarizadas.
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 3. Velocidad de una onda - Hay tres velocidades diferentes implicados con la descripción de una onda, uno de los cuales se introdujo en esta simulación.
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 30. Ecuación de Onda - En esta simulación se estudia la dinámica de las olas. Comenzamos con una cadena que tiene una onda estacionaria en él y mira las fuerzas que actúan sobre cada extremo de un pequeño segmento de la cadena debido a las secciones vecinas. Para fines de visualización de la cadena se muestra como una serie de masas, pero el sistema físico es una cadena continua. Aunque la derivación es para una cadena, resultados similares se producen en muchos otros sistemas.
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 31. Cadena oscilador - En esta simulación examinamos las ondas que se producen en las cadenas de masas con masa M acoplados entre sí con el elástico, las fuerzas de la ley de Hooke (F = - x donde es la constante del resorte yx es la cantidad de los tramos de resorte?). Las masas están limitados sólo a moverse hacia arriba y hacia abajo para que el estiramiento depende sólo de la diferencia en los lugares de Y de las masas.
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 32. Las ondas no lineales - Esta simulación muestra lo que sucede si las fuerzas que no sean acto tensión en una cuerda. Algunas fuerzas adicionales causan la dispersión que vimos en las simulaciones 22 y 23, pero la fricción, la disipación y la no linealidad puede causar otros comportamientos como veremos aquí.
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 33. Solitones - Esta simulación explora una solución especial de la ecuación de onda no lineal, donde los efectos de la dispersión y disipación (que tienden a hacer un pulso de onda hacia fuera) se compensan exactamente por una fuerza no lineal (que, como hemos visto, tiende a causar empinamiento de una onda). En este caso puede haber una forma de pulso de onda especial que puede viajar y mantener su forma llamada un solitón.
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 4. Las ondas transversales - Las ondas transversales son el tipo de ola que por lo general se piensa cuando se piensa en una onda. El movimiento del material que constituye la onda es de arriba abajo de modo que a medida que la ola se mueve hacia adelante el material se mueve perpendicular (o transversal) a la dirección se mueve la onda.
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 5. Movimiento armónico simple - La simple simulación del movimiento armónico muestra el movimiento de una masa en un resorte gráficos de su dependencia del tiempo.
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 6. Movimiento armónico simple y resonancia - El Movimiento armónico simple y resonancia simulación muestra un oscilador armónico amortiguado accionado. El usuario puede seleccionar bajo amortiguado, más amortiguado, y las condiciones críticamente amortiguado.
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 7. Ondas longitudinales - This simulation shows waves where the motion of the material is back and forth in the same direction that the wave moves. Sound waves (in air and in solids) are examples of longitudinal waves.
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 8. Ondas de agua - Ondas de agua, al igual que muchas ondas físicas reales, son combinaciones de tres tipos de movimiento de las olas; transversal, longitudinal y torsional.
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• Ondas: Tutorial Interactivo: 9. Ondas bidimensionales - La simulación Waves bidimensional muestra una onda plana en dos dimensiones de viaje en el plano x-y, en la dirección x, visto desde arriba. En estas simulaciones la amplitud (en la dirección z, hacia usted) se representa en escala de grises.
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• One Dimensional Wave Superposition JS Model: Wave Superposition Model -
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• Optical Illusions JS Package: Oscillating Square Illusion - This simulation shows an oscillating outline of a square with its vertices hidden by 4 yellow squares. If you deselect the Show Yellow Boxes checkbox you can see the moving square beneath.
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• Optical Illusions JS Package: Ring of Purple Circles Illusion - This simulation shows a ring of 16 purple circles with one circle missing. Over time, the position of the missing circle moves clockwise around the ring of circles. By staring into the cross at the center of the screen and relaxing your eyes, a green circle will eventually appear in the place of the missing circle.
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• Optical Illusions JS Package: Rotating Ring of White Circles Illusion - This simulation shows a ring of 8 white circles inside an orange circle's circumference. Over time, the position of the white circles changes, and they appear to be rotating around the circumference of the orange circle. By checking the Show Paths checkbox, you can see the actual paths of the white circles.
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• Optical Illusions JS Package: Rotating Square Illusion - This simulation shows a rotating blue square that is partially hidden by 4 yellow squares. Over time the 4 squares recede off screen, and then move back again. The blue rotating square looks as though it is growing (shrinking) in size over time. If you wait for the yellow squares to completely recede off screen, or uncheck the Show Yellow Boxes checkbox, you can see what is actually happening to the blue rotating square.
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• Oscillator Chain JS Model: Coupled Oscillator Chain Simulation - A JavaScript implementation of the coupled oscillator chain model.
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• Osmosis in a 2D Gas JS Model: Osmosis Simulation -
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• Pendulum Energy JS Model Package: Pendulum Energy find Mass Exercise -
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• Pendulum Energy JS Model Package: Pendulum Energy Simulation - This program simulates a puppet on a swing.
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• Pendulum with Moving Support JS Model: Pendulum with Moving Support Simulation - The Pendulum with Moving Support mobile JavaScript model illustrates the forces and dynamics of a pendulum attached to a moving support.
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• Phases of the Moon JS Model: Phases of the Moon JS Model -
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Illustrations Package: 1D Kinematics Illustrations Overview - In Physlet® Physics One-Dimensional Kinematics Illustrations we consider motion along a straight line. The package zip file contains 6 ready-to-run Illustrations.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Illustrations Package: Ill 2.1: Position and Displacement - This illustrations shows three toy monster trucks and their positions vs. time graphs.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Illustrations Package: Ill 2.2: Average Velocity - How is a position vs. time graph used to determine average velocity.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Illustrations Package: Ill 2.3: Average and Instantaneous Velocity - How do we measure define velocity when an object is accelerating.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Illustrations Package: Ill 2.4: Constant Acceleration - Shows how to mathematically describe constant acceleration.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Illustrations Package: Ill 2.5: Motion on a Hill - Shows a putted gold ball traveling on a hill.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Illustrations Package: Ill 2.6: Free Fall - A ball is dropped near the surface of Earth.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Problems Package: 1D Kinematics Problems Overview - In Physlet® Physics One-Dimensional Kinematics Problems we considered motion along a straight line. The package zip file contains 19 ready-to-run Problems.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Problems Package: Prob 2.1: Position vs. time graph for the T-bird - Which position vs. time graph is correct?
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Problems Package: Prob 2.10: Rope Holding a Hot Air Balloon Cargo - A hot air balloon takes off from the ground carrying a box as cargo. At a certain point the rope holding this cargo is cut. The student examines how gravity affects the cargo during this scenario.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Problems Package: Prob 2.11: Golf Ball on a Wet Green - A golf ball is putted on a wet green. The student investigates how this condition affects the motion of the ball.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Problems Package: Prob 2.12: Cart with Two Springs - A cart on a frictionless rail is attached to two springs. The cart is released so that it moves back and forth solely in the x direction. The problem investigates the acceleration of the cart undergoing this type of motion.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Problems Package: Prob 2.13: Golf Ball Putted Up a Hill on a Green - A golf ball is putted up a steep hill on a green. A side view is shown in the animation (position is given in meters and time is given in seconds). The positive x direction is defined to be parallel to the hill and down the hill. What should the minimum initial velocity of the ball be in order to make it into the hole located at x = -3.6 m?
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Problems Package: Prob 2.14: Golf Ball on a Sloping Green - A golf ball is putted on a level green. The ball travels up a slope onto another level surface. Students will investigate the acceleration of the ball during this motion.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Problems Package: Prob 2.15: Constant Acceleration Putt-Putt - In this problem, the student is asked to give a golf ball some initial velocity and acceleration to travel past two time-dependent obstacles to score a hole in one. The two bumpers have openings that open and close at specific time intervals, through careful measurement and calculation the ball can be given the correct initial velocity and acceleration to make it to the hole.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Problems Package: Prob 2.16: Constant Acceleration Putt-Putt - In this problem, the student is asked to give a golf ball some initial velocity and acceleration to travel past two time-dependent obstacles to score a hole in one. The two bumpers have openings that open and close at specific time intervals, through careful measurement and calculation the ball can be given the correct initial velocity and acceleration to make it to the hole.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Problems Package: Prob 2.17: Find Velocity from Position - A ball is moving towards a black block located at an adjustable x position. Students are asked to investigate the motion of the ball, and to determine the time that a collision will occur when the block is at different x positions.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Problems Package: Prob 2.18: Tennis Ball Launcher - Two balls are shown. The red ball is launched from a tennis ball launcher while the green ball is dropped without any initial velocity at some initial height. Students are asked various questions regarding this situation.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Problems Package: Prob 2.19: Tennis Ball Launcher - One tennis ball is shot from a cannon. The student cannot see the height that the ball is launched from.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Problems Package: Prob 2.2: Sliding Hockey Puck - The simulation shows the top view of a hockey puck sliding on ice that collides and rebounds from a wall on a hockey rink. Answer the questions about the position and displacement of the puck.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Problems Package: Prob 2.3: Matching Helicopter Flight - Varying helicopter flight paths are given in the animations. Also shown is a plot of the helicopter's velocity in the x-direction. The student is asked to determine which animation simulates the plotted motion.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Problems Package: Prob 2.4: Golf Balls Putt Comparison - Two golf balls are putted with the same initial velocity. One ball (red) travels on a perfectly flat green. The other (blue) travels down a slope, across a flat space, and up another slope. Students are asked to determine which ball reaches the hole first.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Problems Package: Prob 2.5: Puck Bounces Between Two Walls - In this problem, we will practice drawing a velocity versus time graph from the two animations. One animation shows an object with constant velocity, while the other has a change in its velocity as it hits each wall. The student is asked to study the differences between the two animations.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Problems Package: Prob 2.6: Constant Velocity Putt-Putt - In this problem, the student is asked to give a golf ball some initial velocity to travel past two time-dependent obstacles to score a hole in one. The two bumpers have openings that open and close at specific time intervals, through careful measurement and calculation the ball can be given the correct initial velocity to make it to the hole.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Problems Package: Prob 2.7: Acceleration of Carts - This problem is aimed to help practice the use of the kinematic equations. There are six animations, each with different accelerations and velocities. Given information is different in each animation to show various ways of calculating the acceleration.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Problems Package: Prob 2.8: Purple Truck Catching Yellow Truck - Two trucks are driving with different speeds. Students are asked to determine when and where the the purple truck passes the yellow truck, and to create a position versus time graph.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Problems Package: Prob 2.9: A Helium Balloon - A helium balloon is released from rest. Students are asked to investigate the balloons motion in the y direction in terms of it's y position, velocity and acceleration.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Problems Package (Hebrew): Prob 2.2: Sliding Hockey Puck - The simulation shows the top view of a hockey puck sliding on ice that collides and rebounds from a wall on a hockey rink. Answer the questions about the position and displacement of the puck.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Problems Package (Hebrew): Prob 2.3: Matching Helicopter Flight - Varying helicopter flight paths are given in the animations. Also shown is a plot of the helicopter's velocity in the x-direction. The student is asked to determine which animation simulates the plotted motion.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Problems Package (Hebrew): Prob 2.4: Golf Balls Putt Comparison - Two golf balls are putted with the same initial velocity. One ball (red) travels on a perfectly flat green. The other (blue) travels down a slope, across a flat space, and up another slope. Students are asked to determine which ball reaches the hole first.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Problems Package (Hebrew): Prob 2.5: Puck Bounces Between Two Walls - In this problem, we will practice drawing a velocity versus time graph from the two animations. One animation shows an object with constant velocity, while the other has a change in its velocity as it hits each wall. The student is asked to study the differences between the two animations.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Problems Package (Hebrew): Prob 2.6: Constant Velocity Putt-Putt - In this problem, the student is asked to give a golf ball some initial velocity to travel past two time-dependent obstacles to score a hole in one. The two bumpers have openings that open and close at specific time intervals, through careful measurement and calculation the ball can be given the correct initial velocity to make it to the hole.
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• Physlet One-Dimensional Kinematics Problems Package (Hebrew): בעיה 2.1 - גרף מיקום ביחס לזמן - Which position vs. time graph is correct?
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• Physlet Periodic Motion Illustrations Package: Ill 16.2: The Simple Pendulum and Spring Motiom - This illustration compares the simple harmonic motion of a mass on a spring to the motion of a pendulum. At small angles (? much smaller than 1), a pendulum can be modeled by simple harmonic motion, and mirrors the motion of a mass on a spring. However, this is not the case when there is a large displacement of the pendulum.
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• Physlet Periodic Motion Illustrations Package: Ill 16.3: Energy and Simple Harmonic Motion - This illustration shows the relationship between kinetic, potential, and total energy for a system exhibiting simple harmonic motion.
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• Physlet Periodic Motion Illustrations Package: Ill 16.4: Forced and Damped Motion - This illustration simulates a mass on a spring system that can be subject to a damping or driving force. Students can adjust the damping or driving parameters to their liking to study their effects. In addition, there are three different models of under damping, over damping, and critical damping.
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• Physlet Periodic Motion Illustrations Package: Ill 16.5: Intro to Fourier Series - This simulation demonstrates and explains some of the qualitative features of a Fourier series by approximating sawtooth and square waves.
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• Physlet Periodic Motion Illustrations Package: Ill 16.6: Fourier Series, Quantitative Features - This simulation demonstrates and explains some of the quantitative features of a Fourier series by explaining how they work numerically and how to derive the Fourier coefficients.
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• Physlet Periodic Motion Illustrations Package: Periodic Motion Illustrations - In the Physlet® Physics Periodic Motion Illustrations package we consider general oscillatory behavior that repeats (think of a position vs. time graph), no matter how complex, is called periodic. This type of motion is important to study since many natural systems are periodic.
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• Physlet Periodic Motion Illustrations Package: Periodic Motion Illustrations Overview - In Physlet® Physics Periodic Motion Illustrations we considered motion along a straight line. The package zip file contains 6 ready-to-run Illustrations.
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• Physlet Sound Illustrations Package: Ill 18.1: Representations of Two-Dimensional Waves - This simulation shows a scalar field as a representation of a two-dimensional wave. The color is white when the amplitude is positive, black when it is negative, and grey when it is zero. Students can study how the familiar wave parameters, the wavelength and period, influence this two-dimensional representation.
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• Physlet Sound Illustrations Package: Ill 18.2: Molecular View of a Sound Wave - This simulation shows a speaker (the source) emitting sound waves towards a man (the detector). Students explore how these waves propagate through a medium (in this case, the air) like a longitudinal wave they studied in Chapter 17.
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• Physlet Sound Illustrations Package: Ill 18.3: Interference in Time and Beats - This simulation shows plots of two sound waves as functions of position, and the result of adding them together. Students can change the frequency of one the waves. When the frequency changes, the wavelength must also change to maintain the wave speed of 343 m/s. Students can measure this difference, and observe the change in the sum of the two waves.
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• Physlet Sound Illustrations Package: Ill 18.4: Doppler Effect - This model simulates the Doppler effect. Students are shown five different animations with different combinations of moving/stationary sources/detectors. The final animation shows what happens when a source exceeds the speed of sound.
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• Physlet Sound Illustrations Package: Ill 18.5: Location of a Supersonic Airplane - This model simulates the various path lengths of sound traveling from an airplane flying overhead. Since the speed of sound is constant, sound waves emitted at different locations reach the detector (depicted by an ear) at different times. Students can observe this effect by adjusting the ratio of the plane's speed to the speed of sound.
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• Physlet Sound Illustrations Package: Sound Illustrations Overview - In Physlet® Physics Sound Illustrations Package we considered general wave behavior in two and three dimensions. The added complexity comes with an added richness of phenomena such as interference, beats, and the Doppler effect. The package zip file contains 5 ready-to-run Illustrations.
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• Physlet Two-Dimensional Kinematics Illustrations Package: 2D Kinematics Illustrations Overview - In Physlet® Physics Two-Dimensional Kinematics Illustrations we discuss two of the most important forms of two-dimensional motion, projectile motion and circular motion. This package zip file contains 6 ready-to-run Illustrations,
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• Physlet Two-Dimensional Kinematics Illustrations Package: Ill 3.1: Vector Decomposition - This simulation illustrates how a vector is represented in two dimensions. Students can change the components of the vector on an x-y plane.
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• Physlet Two-Dimensional Kinematics Illustrations Package: Ill 3.2: Motion on an Incline - This model simulates a ball rolling down inclines of varying degree. Students can observe how the angle of inclination affects the effective acceleration down the plane.
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• Physlet Two-Dimensional Kinematics Illustrations Package: Ill 3.3: The Direction of Velocity and Acceleration Vectors - This model simulates a ball with initial velocities in the x and y directions. Students are introduced to tangential and radial accelerations and how they pertain to an object's motion.
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• Physlet Two-Dimensional Kinematics Illustrations Package: Ill 3.4: Projectile Motion - This model simulates a ball launched with initial x and y velocities. Students can view the components of it's motion, and plots of the x and y velocities.
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• Physlet Two-Dimensional Kinematics Illustrations Package: Ill 3.5: Uniform Circular Motion and Acceleration - This model simulates a particle exhibiting uniform circular motion. Students are shown four animations.
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• Physlet Two-Dimensional Kinematics Illustrations Package: Ill 3.6: Circular and Noncircular Motion - This model simulates a planet's orbit around a larger mass. Students can view uniform circular motion (similar to illustration 3.5) and noncircular motion. In either case, students can observe how the acceleration and velocity change throughout the orbit.
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• Physlet Waves and Oscillations Illustrations Package: Ill 17.1a: Wave Types - This simulation contains four separate animations. Students will study the similarities and differences between transverse and longitudinal waves.
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• Physlet Waves and Oscillations Illustrations Package: Ill 17.1b: Water Waves - This is a basic simulation of two-dimensional water waves using fundamental wave motion. Can you figure out what types of waves are depicted?
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• Physlet Waves and Oscillations Illustrations Package: Ill 17.2: Wave Functions - This illustration allows students to study wave functions and the associated parameters. They are provided with various sliders that control the amplitude, wavelength, and phase.
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• Physlet Waves and Oscillations Illustrations Package: Ill 17.3: Superposition of Pulses - This illustration simulates what happens when we add together two wave functions. In each animation there are two waves traveling in opposite directions. In animation one they have the same amplitude, and in animation two they have opposite amplitudes.
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• Physlet Waves and Oscillations Illustrations Package: Ill 17.5: Resonant Behavior on a String - This illustration provides two strings each with multiple pulses traveling down them towards a wall. Each string has a different pulse frequency. Students will explore the effects of "good" versus "bad" timing of pulses and how it influences the wave pattern.
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• Physlet Waves and Oscillations Illustrations Package: Ill 17.6: Plucking a String - This illustration models a plucked string. Students are introduced to an application of Fourier series by seeing how the individual components add together to model a plucked string.
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• Physlet Waves and Oscillations Illustrations Package: Ill 17.7: Group and Phase Velocities - This illustration presents two new concepts when dealing with waves. Previously students have dealt with the superposition of two waves traveling in opposition directions. Here, the waves are traveling in the same direction. This simulation calculates the group and phase velocities for the superposition, and explains how these pertain to observable phenomena.
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• Physlet Waves and Oscillations Illustrations Package: Waves and Oscillations Illustrations Overview - Physlet® Physics Waves and Oscillations Illustrations demonstrate a type of periodic or oscillatory motion called wave motion. Examples include waves on a string, water waves, earthquakes and sound.
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• Physlet® Physics Gravitation Explorations JS Package: Exp. 12.1: Different xo or vo for Planetary Orbits - This Exploration shows 10 identical planets orbiting a star. The initial position of the planets can be set when the planets are on the x axis.
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• Physlet® Physics Gravitation Explorations JS Package: Exp. 12.2: Set Both Xo and Vo for Planetary Orbits - This Exploration shows a planet orbiting a star and a plot of kinetic and potential energy. The initial position in the x direction and the initial velocity in the y direction of the planet can be set when the planet is on the x axis.
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• Physlet® Physics Gravitation Explorations JS Package: Exp. 12.3: Properties of Eliptical Orbits - A planet orbits a star as shown. Rank orbital properties, such as kinetic energy, at five points in the orbit.
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• Physlet® Physics Gravitation Explorations JS Package: Exp. 12.4: Angular Momentum and Energy - A planet orbits a star as shown along with a graphical depiction of the energy of the planet. Three curves are drawn: the total effective potential energy; the gravitational potential energy; and the effective rotational potential energy represented by the term: L2/2mR2. Explore these quantities as the orbit evolves.
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• Physlet® Physics Gravitation Illustrations JS Package: Ill 12.1: Projectile and Satellite Orbits - Newton, in his consideration of gravity, realized that any projectile launched from the surface of Earth is, in a sense, an Earth satellite (if only for a short time). For example, in this simulation, a ball thrown from a tall mountain sails in a modest orbit that soon intersects Earth not far from its point of launch.
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• Physlet® Physics Gravitation Illustrations JS Package: Ill 12.2: Orbits and Planetary Mass - When we consider the elliptical orbits of the planets (Kepler's first law), we assume that the Sun is stationary at one focus of the ellipse. Why does this happen? The mass of the Sun must be much, much greater than the mass of the planets in order for the motion of the Sun to be ignored. But how large does the mass of the Sun need to be?
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• Physlet® Physics Gravitation Illustrations JS Package: Ill. 12.3: Circular and Noncircular Motion - A planet orbits a star in the two scenarios. The first depicts the Uniform Circular Motion of a planet and the other one depicts the Noncircular Motion of a planet. This Illustration compares the two motions by focusing on the velocity and the acceleration of the planet in each of the animations.
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• Physlet® Physics Gravitation Illustrations JS Package: Ill. 12.4: Angular Momentum and Area - In the absence of a net external torque acting on a system, a particle's angular momentum remains constant. Is there a different way to state the concept of angular momentum conservation? Does a particle sweep out equal areas in equal times (with respect to any origin)? Specifically, in this Illustration, does a free particle moving in a straight line sweep out equal areas in equal times?
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• Physlet® Physics Gravitation Illustrations JS Package: Ill. 12.5: Kepler's Second Law - A planet orbits a star under the influence of gravity starting from the point of aphelion, the point where the planet is farthest from the star. The planet's orbit is elliptical, and its trail is shown as it orbits the star. Kepler's second law states that the planets sweep out equal areas in their orbits in equal times. What does this mean for the planet's orbit?
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• Physlet® Physics Gravitation Illustrations JS Package: Ill. 12.6: Heliocentric vs. Geocentric - In this Illustration two planets (the red circle is the inner planet and green circle is the outer planet) orbit a central star (the black circle). Along with the animation from the star's reference frame, the heliocentric point of view, other options show the motion as seen from each of the planets' reference frames, the geocentric points of view.
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• Physlet® Physics Gravitation Problems JS Package: Prob. 12.1: Determine the unknown mass - A 100-kg mass can be moved around near an unknown mass as shown in four simulations, only one of which is correct. Find the correct simulation and determine the unknown mass.
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• Physlet® Physics Gravitation Problems JS Package: Prob. 12.10: Tunnel through Earth - A tunnel is dug through a hole through the center of Earth to run a train from one side of Earth to the other as shown. Which of the animations correctly depicts the motion of the train as it falls trough the tunnel.
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• Physlet® Physics Gravitation Problems JS Package: Prob. 12.2: Determine the mass of the star - A planet orbits a star as shown in the animation. Determine the mass of the star.
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• Physlet® Physics Gravitation Problems JS Package: Prob. 12.3: Determine the mass of the orbiting planets - Two planets orbit a star as shown. Determine the mass of the orbiting planets.
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• Physlet® Physics Gravitation Problems JS Package: Prob. 12.4: Determine the mass of the star II - A planet has an initial velocity in the y direction that gives it a slightly elliptical orbit around a star. Determine the mass of the star.
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• Physlet® Physics Gravitation Problems JS Package: Prob. 12.5: Is the orbit depicted a physical situation? - The animation purports to model a solar system. Could this represent a physical situation? Explain.
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• Physlet® Physics Gravitation Problems JS Package: Prob. 12.6: Kepler's Laws - The animation purports to model a solar system. Identify the planet that does not obey Kepler's laws.
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• Physlet® Physics Gravitation Problems JS Package: Prob. 12.7: Determine the speed for circular orbit - A satellite orbits a planet is shown. Determine the speed needed for a circular orbit if the height of the orbit were doubled.
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• Physlet® Physics Gravitation Problems JS Package: Prob. 12.8: Determine the mass of the star III - The animation shows a comet orbiting a sta. Determine the mass of the star.
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• Physlet® Physics Gravitation Problems JS Package: Prob. 12.9: Determine the acceleration - A rocket accelerates upward while a ball is fired into the opening in the rocket as shown. Wha is the acceleration of the ball in the rocket's frame of reference.
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• Physlet® Physics Heat and Temperature Illustrations JS Package: Ill. 19.1: Specific Heat - Specific heat describes how much heat is required to increase the temperature of a given quantity of material. In this Illustration a blue mass sits in an insulated oven. Assume that the block absorbs all the heat from the heater. Not surprisingly, a higher-powered heater (the amount of heat delivered/second) results in a higher temperature of the blue mass during the same time interval.s
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• Physlet® Physics Heat and Temperature Illustrations JS Package: Ill. 19.2: Heat Transfer and Conductivity - Heat transfers via three mechanisms: convection, radiation, and conduction. This Illustration briefly describes these mechanisms, but focuses on conduction.
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• Physlet® Physics Heat and Temperature Illustrations JS Package: Ill. 19.3: Radiative heat transfer - If we neglect the planet's atmosphere (which reflects some of the light from the Sun and traps some of the radiation from the planet's surface), we can predict the temperature of the planet.
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• Physlet® Physics Newton's Laws Illustrations JS Package: Ill 4.1: Newton's First Law and Reference Frames - A ball popper on a cart (not shown to scale) is shown moving on a track in three different animations. In each animation the ball is ejected straight up by the popper mechanism at t = 1 s. What does the motion of this ball and cart look like in different reference frames?
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• Physlet® Physics Newton's Laws Illustrations JS Package: Ill 4.2: Free-Body Diagrams - This illustration demonstrates how we analyze the motion of an object using forces. We draw a picture that shows only the object and the direction of the forces known as a free-body diagram. This Illustration analyzes the forces on a block in the x direction and then the forces in the y direction as it is pushed by an external force.
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• Physlet® Physics Newton's Laws Illustrations JS Package: Ill 4.3: Newton's Second Law and Force - A force is a push, a pull, or any other interaction, exerted by one object on another object. In this Illustration the user interacts with a 1.0-kg cart and observes the motion. Velocity and acceleration graphs are also displayed.
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• Physlet® Physics Newton's Laws Illustrations JS Package: Ill 4.4: Mass on an Incline - A mass is on a frictionless incline as shown in the animation. Users may adjust m, the mass of the block (100 grams < m < 500 grams), and ? the angle of the incline (10° < ? < 45°), and view how these changes affect the motion of the mass.
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• Physlet® Physics Newton's Laws Illustrations JS Package: Ill 4.5: Pull Your Wagons - Two toy wagons, attached by a lightweight rope (of negligible mass), are pulled with a constant force using another lightweight rope (again of negligible mass). What is the force of the hand on the rope? What is the force of the red wagon on the rope? To answer these questions, you must first define the system that you are considering and apply Newton's second law.
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• Physlet® Physics Newton's Laws Illustrations JS Package: Ill 6.6: Newton's Third Law and Contact Forces - This Illustration shows graphs of position, velocity, and acceleration vs. time for a 2-kg red block pushed by a 12-N force on a frictionless horizontal surface. The red block is in contact with (and therefore pushes on) the green 1-kg block. Determine what contact forces are required to make the motion of the blocks physical.
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• Physlet® Physics Newton's Laws Illustrations JS Package: Newton's Laws Illustrations Overview - In kinematics we did not care why an object was moving. We are now going to explain why objects move or do not move. We do so by using the concept of force. In this chapter we consider the basic techniques of free-body diagrams, the normal force, and the forces of weight and tension.
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• Physlet® Physics Newton's Laws Problems II JS Package: Newton's Laws Problems II Overview - We test our knowledge of additional applications of Newton's Laws, such as friction (including air friction), circular motion, and springs.
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• Physlet® Physics Newton's Laws Problems II JS Package: Prob 5.1: A Physics textbook pressed against a wall does not move - Analyze the forces acting on a physics textbook pressed against a wall, which has a coefficient of static friction and a coefficient of kinetic friction and does not move.
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• Physlet® Physics Newton's Laws Problems II JS Package: Prob 5.10: A puck resting on an air hockey table is attached to a string - A puck resting on an air hockey table is attached to a string and given an initial tangential push such that it travels in a circle at constant speed. Analyze the forces.
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• Physlet® Physics Newton's Laws Problems II JS Package: Prob 5.2: A Physics textbook pressed against a wall moves - Analyze the forces acting on a moving physics textbook pressed against a wall, which has a coefficient of static friction and a coefficient of kinetic friction.
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• Physlet® Physics Newton's Laws Problems II JS Package: Prob 5.3: A Physics textbook pressed against a wall moves II - Analyze this second example of forces acting on a moving physics textbook pressed against a wall, which has a coefficient of static friction and a coefficient of kinetic friction.
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• Physlet® Physics Newton's Laws Problems II JS Package: Prob 5.4: A block pushed by a varying force - A woman pushes on a block with an varying force. Determine the coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the table from the motion.
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• Physlet® Physics Newton's Laws Problems II JS Package: Prob 5.7: A block slides on a rough ramp - Analyze the forces acting on a block sliding on a rough ramp.
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• Physlet® Physics Newton's Laws Problems II JS Package: Prob 5.9: A mass on a turntable - Analyze the forces acting on a mass sitting on a turntable.
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• Physlet® Physics Newton's Laws Problems II JS Package: Prob. 5.11: A coin is on a rotating turntable - A 5-gram coin is on a rotating turntable. Analyze the forces on the coin.
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• Physlet® Physics Newton's Laws Problems II JS Package: Prob. 5.12: How far can a spring be stretched? - Determine the properties of a spring by slowly dragging it back and forth from its equilibrium position.
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• Physlet® Physics Newton's Laws Problems II JS Package: Prob. 5.5: A block sits on an second block pushed across the floor - Analyze the free-body (force-body) diagram for a block sitting on an second block that is pushed across the floor
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• Physlet® Physics Newton's Laws Problems II JS Package: Prob. 5.6: A block slides on a second block - Analyze the forces as a block slides on a second block if there is friction between the top and the bottom block, but the surface between the bottom block and the table is frictionless.
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• Physlet® Physics Newton's Laws Problems II JS Package: Prob. 5.8: Take a ride on a Ferris wheel - Analyze the forces on a Ferris wheel rotating at constant speed.
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• Physlet® Physics Newtons Laws Problems JS Package: Newton's Laws Problems Overview - We test our knowledge of why objects move or do not move using the concept of force. Problems in this section use the techniques described in the Newton's Law Illustrations section of free-body diagrams, the normal force, and the forces of weight and tension.
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• Physlet® Physics Newtons Laws Problems JS Package: Prob 4.1: Correct Free-Body Diagram? - A red block is pushed and moves as shown in the animation. Which free-body (force-body) diagram is correct?
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• Physlet® Physics Newtons Laws Problems JS Package: Prob 4.10: Hoisted boxes - Two boxes, each of mass 2.0 kg, are connected by a lightweight rope. The boxes are hoisted upward with a constant acceleration. Analyze the forces and rope tension.
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• Physlet® Physics Newtons Laws Problems JS Package: Prob 4.11: Modified Atwood's machine - A 1.0-kg cart on a low-friction track is connected to a string and a hanging object are show. What is the tension in the string and the mass of the hanging object.
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• Physlet® Physics Newtons Laws Problems JS Package: Prob 4.12: A truck and car collision - A large 2000-kg truck and a small compact car collide head-on is shown. Analyze the forces on these vehicles.
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• Physlet® Physics Newtons Laws Problems JS Package: Prob 4.13: Does the force Newton's third law? - The animation shows balls that can be dragged around. As you do so, notice how the sizes of the force arrows change. Which animation, if any, obeys Newton's third law?
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• Physlet® Physics Newtons Laws Problems JS Package: Prob 4.2: Interpret Free-Body diagram. - A free-body (force-body) diagram for a 20,000-kg airplane at some instant is shown. Interpret this diagram.
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• Physlet® Physics Newtons Laws Problems JS Package: Prob 4.3: Pull your little red wagon - A 100-kg wagon with a 20-kg block on its frictionless bed is pulled to the right with an unknown force. Sketch a plot of the force exerted by the hand on the cart as a function of time.
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• Physlet® Physics Newtons Laws Problems JS Package: Prob 4.4: Sketch force on little red wagon. - A 100-kg wagon with a 20-kg block on its frictionless bed is pulled to the right with an unknown force. Sketch a plot of the force exerted by the hand on the cart as a function of time.
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• Physlet® Physics Newtons Laws Problems JS Package: Prob 4.5: A buoy is dropped into a lake - A 0.010-kg buoy is dropped into a lake as shown in the animation. Describe the forces acting on the buoy.
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• Physlet® Physics Newtons Laws Problems JS Package: Prob 4.6: Putted golf ball - The animation shows a putted golf ball of mass 0.050 kg as it rolls toward the hole. The putter hit the ball before t = 0.00 s and is no longer in contact with the bal. Analyze the force on the ball.
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• Physlet® Physics Newtons Laws Problems JS Package: Prob 4.7: A ball constrained to move on a rod - A 20-kg ball has a hole with a rod passing through. The rod exerts a force as needed that constrains the ball to move along the rod. An applied force is now added (the "pulling" force) so the ball is pulled is shown. Analyze the motion.
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• Physlet® Physics Newtons Laws Problems JS Package: Prob 4.8: A ride in an elevator - A 50-kg box is riding in an elevator that accelerates upward or downward at a constant rate. The box rests on a digital scale that records its apparent weight in newtons. How does the motion affect the apparent weight?
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• Physlet® Physics Newtons Laws Problems JS Package: Prob 4.9: Rank the accelerations and tensions - A 10-kg mass is attached via a massless string over a massless pulley to a hand. The masses in each animation are identical. Rank and analyze the accelerations and string tensions in each animation.
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• Physlet® Physics Periodic Motion Problems JS Package: Prob 16.1: Hooke's Law and Simple Harmonic Motion - This simulation shows a spring and a graphical representation of Hooke's Law. Hooke's Law works well when the spring is not stretched too far. When the displacement is large, the elastic limit is approached, and the force is no longer linear.
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• Physlet® Physics Periodic Motion Problems JS Package: Prob 16.10: Determine the Effective Acceleration Due to Gravity - This simulation shows a simple pendulum oscillating over time. Students must determine the effective acceleration due to gravity by observing the pendulum's motion.
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• Physlet® Physics Periodic Motion Problems JS Package: Prob 16.11: Dig a hole through Earth - This simulation shows a train oscillating through the center of the earth. Students are asked to choose which of the four animation correctly displays the acceleration of the train as a function of position.
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• Physlet® Physics Periodic Motion Problems JS Package: Prob 16.12: A Block Floating in Water is Displaced from Equilibrium - This simulation shows two blocks floating in water. One block is at equilibrium while the other is displaced and oscillates in the water. Students are asked to determine the condition for equilibrium, the net force, the period of oscillation, and the mass of the two blocks.
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• Physlet® Physics Periodic Motion Problems JS Package: Prob 16.2: A Ball Attached to a Spring Position Graph - This simulation shows the motion of a mass and spring system over time. Students are asked to choose which animation correctly displays the correct position versus time graph.
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• Physlet® Physics Periodic Motion Problems JS Package: Prob 16.3: A Ball Attached to a Spring Velocity Graph - This simulation shows the motion of a mass and spring system over time. Students are asked to choose which animation correctly displays the correct velocity versus time graph.
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• Physlet® Physics Periodic Motion Problems JS Package: Prob 16.4: Ball Attached to Spring Simple Harmonic Motion - This simulation shows the motion of a mass and spring system over time. Students are shown five different plots of the mass' motion, and asked to determine if the system exhibits simple harmonic motion.
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• Physlet® Physics Periodic Motion Problems JS Package: Prob 16.5: Determine the spring constant - This simulation shows the motion of a mass and spring system over time. Determine the spring constant of the spring.
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• Physlet® Physics Periodic Motion Problems JS Package: Prob 16.6: Determine the system properties - This simulation shows the motion of a mass and spring system over time. Students are asked to determine several properties of the system, including the spring constant, total mechanical energy, and the maximum velocity.
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• Physlet® Physics Periodic Motion Problems JS Package: Prob 16.7: Which Graph Denotes Position vs. Time - This simulation shows the motion of a mass and spring system that is synchronized with a coin on a turntable. Students are asked to determine which animation shows the correct graph for the position of an analogous horizontal mass on a spring versus time.
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• Physlet® Physics Periodic Motion Problems JS Package: Prob 16.8: Determine the Maximum Speed of the Hanging Mass - This simulation shows the motion of a mass and spring system that is synchronized with a coin on a turntable. Students are asked to determine the maximum velocity of the hanging mass while it oscillates.
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• Physlet® Physics Periodic Motion Problems JS Package: Prob 16.9: Which Graph Properly Shows the Position/Velocity/Acceleration - This simulation shows a simple pendulum oscillating over time. Students are given four animations and must determine which accurately portray the x-position, x-velocity, and x-velocity. Then they must write down equations for each parameter.
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• Physlet® Physics Two-Dimensional Kinematics Problems JS Package: Ch3 Problems: Two-Dimensional Kinematics Problems Overview - The problems in this package are based on the Two-Dimensional Kinematics Illustrations and tests our knowledge of the most important forms of two-dimensional motion: projectile motion and circular motion. motion
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• Physlet® Physics Two-Dimensional Kinematics Problems JS Package: Prob. 3.1: Rank the vectors - Rank the components and magnitudes of the vectors shown in the simulation.
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• Physlet® Physics Two-Dimensional Kinematics Problems JS Package: Prob. 3.10: Hit the Lamborghini - Adjust the initial velocity and launch angle of a projectile to hit the center of a moving car.
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• Physlet® Physics Two-Dimensional Kinematics Problems JS Package: Prob. 3.11: A ball slides off a table - A ball rolls off of a table and hits a wall. Determine what the ball's final position will be after the collision.
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• Physlet® Physics Two-Dimensional Kinematics Problems JS Package: Prob. 3.12: Bouncing basketball - This simulation shows a bouncing basketball. Analyze the motion.
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• Physlet® Physics Two-Dimensional Kinematics Problems JS Package: Prob. 3.13: Putted golf ball - This animation shows a putted golf ball. Determine the acceleration and displacement of the ball during the motion.
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• Physlet® Physics Two-Dimensional Kinematics Problems JS Package: Prob. 3.14: Accelerating space probe -
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• Physlet® Physics Two-Dimensional Kinematics Problems JS Package: Prob. 3.15: Moving along a circular path - Determine the components of velocity and acceleration as an object moves along a circular path.
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• Physlet® Physics Two-Dimensional Kinematics Problems JS Package: Prob. 3.16: Rotating square - Determine the displacement, distance traveled, velocity, and speed of a point on a rotating square.
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• Physlet® Physics Two-Dimensional Kinematics Problems JS Package: Prob. 3.17: Uniform circular motion of a wheel - Analyze the motion of a point on the wheel.
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• Physlet® Physics Two-Dimensional Kinematics Problems JS Package: Prob. 3.2: Two vectors - Compute the sum of two vectors.
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• Physlet® Physics Two-Dimensional Kinematics Problems JS Package: Prob. 3.3: Rank the motion diagrams - The animations show the motion of a ball on various surfaces. Rank the motions.
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• Physlet® Physics Two-Dimensional Kinematics Problems JS Package: Prob. 3.4: Lift a bowling ball - This model shows three different ways of lifting a bowling ball onto a shelf. Rank the magnitudes of displacement and the magnitudes of average velocities.
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• Physlet® Physics Two-Dimensional Kinematics Problems JS Package: Prob. 3.5: A helicopter takes off - This simulation shows a helicopter taking off. Sketch graphs of the x and y positions, to determine the x and y velocities, and what the speed of the helicopter is at any instant.
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• Physlet® Physics Two-Dimensional Kinematics Problems JS Package: Prob. 3.6: Hot-air balloon takes off - This simulation shows a hot-air balloon taking off. Determine the x and y displacements, the velocities, and the accelerations of the balloon during it's takeoff.
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• Physlet® Physics Two-Dimensional Kinematics Problems JS Package: Prob. 3.7: A Projectile is launched - This model shows a projectile launched through the air. Determine where the ball reached its minimum speed, and what that speed is.
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• Physlet® Physics Two-Dimensional Kinematics Problems JS Package: Prob. 3.8: Shoot the apple from the tree -
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• Physlet® Physics Two-Dimensional Kinematics Problems JS Package: Prob. 3.9: Projectile motion - This model shows a projectile launched at some initial angle. Determine various properties of its motion.
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• Physlet® Waves and Oscillations Problems Package: Illustration 17.4: Superposition of Traveling Wave - The animation shows disturbances on two identical strings. Which of the given statements are true?
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• Physlet® Waves and Oscillations Problems Package: Prob 17.1: Find the frequency of the wave - Find the frequency of the wave shown in the animation.
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• Physlet® Waves and Oscillations Problems Package: Prob 17.2: Find the velocity of the wave - A traveling sine wave is shown. Find the velocity of the wave.
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• Physlet® Waves and Oscillations Problems Package: Prob 17.3: Determine the tension in the string - Two traveling pulses along two identical strings with different tensions is shown. The tension in one string is given; determine the tension in the other.
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• Physlet® Waves and Oscillations Problems Package: Prob 17.5: Superposition of two waves - Determine what the superposition of two waves would look like at the given time.
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• Pirate Ship JS Model: Pirate Ship Ride Simulation -
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• Point Charge Electric Field JS Model: Electric Field with Moving Test Charges - Explore electric field properties by allowing test charges to move under the influence of the field.
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• Point Charge Electric Field JS Model: Electric Field with Test Charges - Add more test charges to study electric field properties.
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• Point Charge Electric Field JS Model: Point Charge Electric Field Simulation - The Coulomb's Law and Electric Fields simulation shows the electric field from multiple point charges.
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• Point Charge Electric Potential JS Model: Point Charge Electric Potential Simulation - The Point Charge Electric Potential simulation shows the potential from multiple point charges.
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• Pulsar Sounds Audio Demonstration JS Model: Pulsar Sounds Audio Demonstration - The Pulsar Sounds Audio Demonstration Model shows how play audio recordings from within a JavaScript EjsS model.
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• Quilt JS Package: Time Evolution of a Wave Function: FP Worksheet - This worksheet examines an electron which is free to move in a one-dimensional space (free particle). Predict the time dependence of the given wave function.
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• Quilt JS Package: Time Evolution of a Wave Function: ISW Worksheet I - An electron is in a one-dimensional infinite square well of width L. Predict the time evolution of the given wave function.
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• Quilt JS Package: Time Evolution of a Wave Function: ISW Worksheet II - An electron is in a one-dimensional infinite square well of width L. Predict the time dependence of the given wave function.
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• Quilt JS Package: Time Evolution of a Wave Function: ISW Worksheet III - An electron is in a one-dimensional infinite square well of width L. Predict the time dependence of the given wave function.
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• Quilt JS Package: Time Evolution of a Wave Function: Part B Summary - The Part B Summary outlines a procedure can be used to understand and to calculate the time dependence of a wave function.
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• Quilt JS Package: Time Evolution of a Wave Function: Questions B.I-IV - Questions B.I-IV help us think systematically about the time evolution of a wave function.
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• Quilt JS Package: Time Evolution of a Wave Function: Questions C.I-III - Questions C.I-III test our understanding of an electron confined in a one-dimensional infinite square well.
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• Quilt JS Package: Time Evolution of a Wave Function: QuILT: The Time Evolution of a Wave Function - In Part A of this tutorial, an electron is in a one-dimensional infinite square well of width L. This section contains four questions and two simulations.
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• Quilt JS Package: Time Evolution of a Wave Function: SHO Worksheet I - An electron is in a one-dimensional simple harmonic oscillator. Predict the time dependence of the given wave function.
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• Quilt JS Package: Time Evolution of a Wave Function: SHO Worksheet II - An electron is in a one-dimensional simple harmonic oscillator. Predict the time dependence of the given wave function.
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• Quilt JS Package: Time Evolution of a Wave Function: Simulation A.I - Simulation A.I shows the wave function for an electron in the one-dimensional infinite square well. Does the probability density for a given x change with time in this simulation?
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• Quilt JS Package: Time Evolution of a Wave Function: Simulation A.II - Simulation A.II shows the wave function for an electron in the one-dimensional infinite square well. Does the probability density for a given x change with time in this simulation? Reconcile your observation with the result of Simulation A.I.
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• Quilt JS Package: Time Evolution of a Wave Function: Simulation C.I - Simulation C.I examines the time development an electron in a one-dimensional infinite square well of width L in a superposition state.
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• Relativistic and Classical Particle Collision Comparison JS Model: Relativistic and Classical Comparison of Particle Collisions Simulation -
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• Relativistic and Newtonian Oscillator Comparison JS Model: Relativistic Plane-Oscillator Simulation -
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• Relativistic and Newtonian World Lines JS Model: Relativistic and Newtonian World Lines Simulation -
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• Rocket Car JS Model: Rocket Car Simulation -
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• Sidereal and Solar Day JS Model: Sidereal and Solar Day JS Model -
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• Simple Harmonic Oscillator JS Model: Simple Harmonic Oscillator Simulation - This simulation shows a simple harmonic oscillator and its position vs. time graph.
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• Simple Harmonic Oscillator JS Model: Simple Harmonic Oscillator Simulation No Graph - An implementation of the Simple Harmonic Oscillator without any graphs.
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• Simple Pendulum JS Model: Simple Pendulum with Graph Simulation - A modified version of the Simple Pendulum model that shows how to show and hide a data graph.
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• Simple Pendulum JS Model: Simple Pendum - A simple pendulum is constructed by placing a mass m at the end of a rod of length L with negligible mass.  The system oscillates about the lower vertical position due to a torque ? about the pivot produced by gravity acting on the mass.
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• Solar and Lunar Eclipse JS Model: Solar and Lunar Eclipse Simulation - This simulation models the occurrences of solar and lunar eclipses. In the Sky View, the motion of Sun and Moon across the sky (+/- 7 degrees from the ecliptic) are shown.
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• Sound Analyzer JS Model: Sound Spectrum Analyzer -
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• Sound Waveforms JS Model: Sound Waveforms Simulation - The Sound Waveforms JavaScript Model explores the aural texture of four basic periodic waveforms.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Acoustics - The study of what happens to sound in an enclosed space or as the result of interactions with large objects such as buildings is called acoustics. Humans have been trying to improve the acoustics of auditoriums and other public spaces since the time of the ancient Romans. Reflection, refraction, path difference, diffraction and interference will govern how sound behaves inside rooms, auditoriums and concert pavilions.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Adding Sinusoidal Waves - Sinusoidal waves have the property, called superposition, that their amplitudes add linearly if they arrive at the same point at the same time. This gives rise to several interesting phenomena in nature which we will investigate in this and the next few simulations.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Adding Wave Pulses - When two waves of the same type come together it is usually the case that their amplitudes add. So two overlapping water waves have an amplitude that is twice as high as the amplitude of the individual waves. This is called constructive interference and it can occur for sinusoidal waves as well as pulses.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Basics: The Molecular Basis of Matter - This simulation shows particles interacting with a slight attraction which will cause them to stay connected with each other to form a a solid at low temperature. But if they have enough thermal energy they will begin to move around each other to act like liquid. Additional thermal energy causes them to act like a gas.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Basics: Work and Energy - Various physics concepts and definitions needed for the study of sound, acoustics and musical instruments are presented.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Beats - The phenomena of beats occurs when two notes are close together in frequencies and we perceive one note which varies in loudness. A guitar string can be tuned by comparing a note with a known pitch and tuning the string until the beats disappear. What happens if the two frequencies get further and further apart?
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Diffraction - Sometimes waves don't travel in a straight line, even if their speed does not change (as in the case of refraction). For example, you can hear the conversation in the next room even though you cannot see the source. This is because sound waves undergo diffraction, bending as they go through the doorway between the two rooms.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Dispersion - The speed of a wave can depend on the frequency of the wave, a phenomenon known as dispersion. Although this effect is often small. it is easy to observe with a prism.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Doppler Shift - If the wave source or receiver is moving, the waves will appear to have a different frequency. For example if you are moving towards a sound source you catch up with the next peak in the wave sooner than you would expect because you are moving towards it. This effect is called the Doppler Shift and occurs for both light and sound.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Driven String and Resonance - In this simulation a string is driven at one end by an oscillating driver. The result is that a wave will eventually form on the string. At certain frequencies the wave will become large and we refer to this resonance phenomena as a standing wave.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: E&M: Currents and Magnetic Fields - In this section we study the magnetic field of either a permanent magnet or the field produced by a flow of current in a coil. Field is measured in Gauss. The compass, magnet and coil are all draggable. The earth's magnetic field can also be demonstrated.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: E&M: Electric and Magnetic Forces - In this section we study electric and magnetic fields with different orientations to see their effects on neutral, positive and negative charges. For the electric field case the particles have zero initial velocity. In second case with a magnetic field in the x-direction the initial velocity is zero but there is a check-box so that you can give the particles an initial velocity in the +x direction. In the third case the magnetic field is rotated so that it points into the screen.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: E&M: Faraday's Law - If a changing magnetic field is present near a wire that is part of a circuit it will cause current to flow in the circuit. This is known as Faraday's law and is the basis for a lot of modern technology. Electric generators, metal detectors, the read head on a computer hard drive, credit card readers, cassette tape readers. We will see several applications for sound reproduction.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: E&M: Ohm's Law - The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor. It is measured in Ohms and the relation between resistance (R), current (I) and electrical potential (V) is Ohm's law: V = IR. Ohm's law says that a larger voltage makes more current flow if resistance is fixed. Or if resistance is lower at the same voltage, more current will flow.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Electromagnetic Waves - This simulation shows an oscillating electron in a sending antenna on the left. Because electrons have an electric field, an accelerating electron will create a wave in the electric field around it. Magnetic fields are created by moving charges so a magnetic wave is also formed by an accelerating charge. Only the y-component of the change in the electric field is shown (so an oscillation frequency of zero will show nothing, because there is only a constant electric field).
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Electronics - It is not possible to record, transmit and replay sounds perfectly so that they sound exactly as they were heard originally. This chapter explains several electronic devices used in sound recording and reproduction using concepts that were introduced in previous chapters.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Fourier Series - The French Mathematician Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier showed any periodic function can be formed from an infinite sum of sines and cosines. This is very convenient because it means that everything we know about sines and cosines applies to a periodic function of any shape. Although the sum is infinite in theory, in many cases using just a few terms may be close enough to provide a good approximation.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Impedance - But why do sound waves reflect from the open end of a tube or when the size of tube changes abruptly? The resistance to the movement of a wave crossing a boundary from one medium into another is called impedance and occurs for waves on a string, sound waves in air and electronic signals in a circuit. When a wave tries to travel from a medium with one impedance to a region where the impedance is different, there will be a partial reflection.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Interference - This simulation shows a top view of waves interfering on the surface of a tank of water (imagine tapping the surface of a pond with the end of a stick at regular intervals). The white circles coming from the spot represents the wave crests with troughs in between. Two sources can be seen at the same time and the separation between them and the wavelength of both can be adjusted.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Introduction to Sound - Sound: An Interactive eBook consists of 33 interactive simulations which require the reader to click buttons, move sliders, etc. in order to answer questions about the behavior of waves and sound in particular. The goal of this book is to create an engaging text that integrates the strengths of printed, static textbooks and the interactive dynamics possible with simulations to engage the student in actively learning the physics of sound.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Lenses - A wave that passes all the way through a piece of material with parallel sides leaves the material at the same angle that it entered. The wave un-bends when it exits the material by the same amount that it bent when entering but this is only true if the sides of the material are parallel. Convex and concave lenses have sides that are not parallel (except near the center). In this case parallel rays of light end up exiting in different directions.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Longitudinal Waves - Longitudinal waves are waves where the motion of the material in the wave is back and forth in the same direction that the wave moves. Longitudinal waves are sometimes called compressional waves. Sound waves (in air and in solids) are examples of longitudinal waves.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Microphone Sound Analyzer - This software allows you to analyze sound recorded by the internal microphone of your computer or mobile device.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Mirrors and Reflection - In many cases waves of all types will travel in a straight line, reflecting off of objects and surfaces at the same angle that they strike the surface. This is called the law of reflection and is true for sound waves as well as light as long as the surface is smooth relative to the wavelength.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Musical Scales - The notes on musical instruments are organized into scales and we would like to have a scale where we get the greatest number of combinations that sound good together. We also would like to standardize the scale in such a way that if we build other instruments, two instruments playing together can play the same pitch. This turns out to be more difficult than it would seem. The choice of scale is arbitrary and different cultures have chosen differently.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Other Waves - If you stretch a slinky out between two points and gently twist it at one end, the twist will travel down the slinky as a wave pulse. This is an example of a torsional wave.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Path Difference - If two sources of waves are in phase to start with, when they reach a distant location they may be in-phase (leading to constructive interference) or out-of-phase (leading to destructive interference) depending on slight differences in the distance traveled. This path difference gives rise to many interesting phenomena such as interference patterns (in the case of light) and dead spots in auditoriums (in the case of sound).
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Percussion and Drumheads - This section allows you to see and manipulate the modes for a square drum head. You can change the modes using the sliders to change the mode numbers n and m. For a membrane there are nodal lines which do not vibrate similar to the nodes we saw on the string but now in two dimensions. You can rotate and enlarge the surface by dragging the mouse over the image. Just like the case for a vibrating string, more than one mode can be present on the two dimensional surface at the same time.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Pitch, Loudness and Timbre - The mechanism of human hearing does not operate as a perfect scientific instrument. In this chapter we relate a few subjective measurements of sound (things people report after hearing a sound) to objective, scientific measurements (measurements made in a laboratory using scientific instruments). The three subjective quantities of pitch, loudness and timbre are related to laboratory measurements of a sound wave's fundamental frequency, amplitude and waveform, respectively.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Plucked String - In this section a set of initial conditions for a vibrating string is shown. The first is the fundamental frequency of the string, the second is the second harmonic. The third and fourth initial conditions simulate plucking in the center and at a location one fourth of the way along the string.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Quality Factor - Many systems, including musical instruments, have a wide range of frequencies at which the system will resonate. We study how this range depends on the damping coefficient.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Reflection of Waves at a Boundary - Waves on a string form standing waves because the wave reflects from each end of the string where there is a fixed node. How do standing waves form in a tube full of air? This section shows that waves reflect from the end of a tube and that this reflection can be of two types, depending on whether the boundary is 'soft' or 'rigid'.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Refraction - A wave that changes speed as it crosses the boundary of between two materials will also change direction if it crosses the boundary at an angle other than perpendicular. This is because the part of the wavefront that gets to the boundary first, slows down first. The bending of a wave due to changes in speed as it crosses a boundary is called refraction.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Resonance - Resonance occurs in an oscillating system when the driving frequency happens to equal the natural frequency. For this special case the amplitude of the motion becomes a maximum. An example is trying to push someone on a swing so that the swing gets higher and higher. If the frequency of the push equals the natural frequency of the swing, the motion gets bigger and bigger. Resonance is a key concept in the production of sound in instruments and in acoustics and we will come across it many times.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Resonance Springs - This simulation shows five different masses, each attached to a spring of the same stiffness. The springs are mounted on a mechanical device that shakes the springs and attached masses.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Sanding Waves in a Tube - This section shows a simulation that compares the fundamental, second, third and forth harmonics of standing waves on a string with standing waves in a tube. Notice that for a tube open on both ends the displacement nodes occur where the string has nodes and the displacement anti-nodes in the tube occur where the string has displacement nodes. The pressure nodes in a tube open at both ends occur in the same place as the string nodes.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Sound Texture - This simulation explores the aural texture of four basic periodic waveforms: sine, triangle, square, and sawtooth. The sine waveform has a single frequency and is the building block of other periodic waves by summing harmonics in a Fourier Series as we will see in the next section. The richness of the sound is called the timbre (defined in the previous chapter) and is determined by the amplitude of the harmonics in the Fourier sum.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: The Ear and Perception - We look at how the ear turns vibrations into the perception of sound. Some of the exact details of this process are still not completely understood but the general picture of how we hear is fairly well established. Once again we will see that the human hearing mechanism gives us experiences that do not correspond exactly to laboratory measurements.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: The Human Voice - The human singing voice is also a vibration which is amplified by resonance. The vocal chords are the vibrating part and the throat, mouth, nasal cavities and bronchial tubes constitute the resonance cavities that amplify these vibrations into sound. Because every person's combination of throat, mouth, nasal cavities and bronchial tubes is slightly different, we all sound slightly different.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Transverse Waves - Transverse waves are the type of wave you usually think of when you imagine a wave. The motion of the material constituting the wave is up and down so that as the wave moves forward the material moves perpendicular (or transverse) to the direction the wave moves.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Vibrating Plates - The Vibrating Plates simulation examines vibrational modes on a rectangular surface. The surface is fixed at the edges so the nodal lines occur in different places compared to a rectangle with free edges. The model assumes that the surface is very thin and very flexible; real surfaces which are stiffer will have slightly different nodal lines and anti-nodes.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Vibrations - All sound starts with something that vibrates. The reed in a clarinet vibrates, the vocal cords in a singer's throat vibrate, the air flowing over the mouthpiece of a flute oscillates, and the speaker cone on your stereo or in an ear-bud vibrates. In this chapter we investigate a particular kind of vibration called simple harmonic motion.
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• Sound: An Interactive Book: Wave Speed - There are two different speeds involved with describing a wave. In previous chapters we saw that the individual points on a wave oscillate (up and down for transverse waves, back and forth for longitudinal waves) with simple harmonic motion, just like masses on springs. But the up and down speed of a point on a transverse wave doesn't tell us how fast the wave moves from one place to the next. The wave speed, v, is how fast the wave travels and is determined by the properties of the medium.
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• Star Motion on the Horizon JS Package: Star Motion on the Eastern Horizon - This simulation shows star motion on the Eastern horizon.
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• Star Motion on the Horizon JS Package: Star Motion on the Northern Horizon - This simulation shows star motion on the Northern horizon.
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• Star Motion on the Horizon JS Package: Star Motion on the Southern Horizon - This simulation shows star motion on the southern horizon.
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• Star Motion on the Horizon JS Package: Star Motion on the Western Horizon - This simulation shows the motion of stars on the Western horizon.
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• Stellar Aberration 2D JS Model: Stellar Aberration 2D JS Model - This page shows the running Stellar Aberration 2D JS Model in a HTML page.
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• Sun-Planet Potential JS Model: Plot the potential from Sun and a planet - The Sun-Planet Potential JavaScript Model plots the gravitational potential U(r) from the surface of Sun to two astronomical units (AUs).
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• Synkope amusement park ride: Synkope Amusement Park Ride - This model simulates a ride in a Synkope attraction, located at Terra Mitica, Benidorm, Spain.
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• Tea Cups Ride JS Model: Tea Cups Ride Simulation - A simulation of the rotating Tea Cups amusement park ride.
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• Three-State Nuclear JS Model: Three-state nuclear decay simulation. - This simulations shows the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei in which the parent nucleus first decays into an intermediate state before decaying into a stable state.
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• Two Source Ripple Tank JS Model: Two Source Ripple Tank Simulation - The Two Source Ripple Tank JS Model shows a two-dimensional interference pattern. The color is white at the wave crest and black at the wave trough. Use this simulation to study how familiar wave parameters, such as the wavelength and period, influence this two-dimensional representation.
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• Two-Body Orbits JS Model: Two-Body Orbits Simulation - The Two-Body Orbits JavaScript Model shows the motion of two objects (e.g., binary star or moon-planet system) interacting via Newton's law of universal gravitation.
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• Two-State Nuclear Decay JS Model: Two-State Nuclear Decay -
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• Uniformly Accelerated Reference Frames JS Model : Uniformly Accelerated Reference Frames Simulation -
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• Vernier Caliper JS Model: Vernier Caliper Demo -
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• Vernier Caliper JS Model: Vernier Caliper Simulation - A simulation of the principle of operation and the physical parts of a Vernier Caliper.
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• Vibrating Drumhead JS Model: Vibrating Drumhead - The Vibrating Drumhead model displays the analytical wave equation solution for a thin circular membrane with a fixed boundary.
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• Vibrating Plate JS Model: Vibrating Plate Simulation - The Vibrating Plate simulation displays the analytical wave equation solution for a thin two-dimensional plate with width and length (a,b) and with a fixed boundary.
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 1. Introduction to Waves Tutorial - Waves: An Interactive Tutorial is a set of 33 exercises designed to teach the fundamentals of wave dynamics. It starts with very simple wave properties and ends with an examination of nonlinear wave behavior. The emphasis here is on the properties of waves which are difficult to illustrate in a static textbook figure.
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 10. Adding Two Linear Waves (Superposition) - This simulation shows the sum of two wave functions u(x,t) = f(x,t) + g(x,t).
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 11. Interference - This simulation shows a top view of a source making waves on the surface of a tank of water. The white circles coming from the spot represents the wave crests with troughs in between. Two sources can be seen at the same time and the separation between them and the wavelength of both can be adjusted
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 12. Group Velocity - The Group Velocity simulation shows how several waves add together to form a single wave shape.
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 13. Other Wave Functions - This simulation explores how any function of x and t which has these variables in the form x - v t will be a traveling wave with speed v.
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 14. Fourier Analysis and Synthesis - This simulation demonstrates Fourier analysis and synthesis. Fourier analysis is the process of mathematically breaking down a complex wave into a sum of of sines and cosines. Fourier synthesis is the process of building a particular wave shape by adding sines and cosines.
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 15. Mirrors - This simulation exploration of specular reflection fro plane, concave, and convex surfaces.
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 16. Collisions with Boundaries - This simulation shows how the phase of the wave may be different after reflection, depending on the surface from which they reflect.
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 17. Standing Waves on a String - This simulation shows how a standing wave on a string is formed from two identical waves moving in opposite directions.
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 18. Refraction - This simulation shows how a wave that changes speed as it crosses the boundary of between two materials will also change direction if it crosses the boundary at an angle other than perpendicular.
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 19. Lenses - The simulation shows how light is bent by a lens using the thin lens approximation which assumes the lens thickness is small compared to the curvature of the glass.
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 2. Sine Wave - This simulation shows a perfect, smooth wave out on the ocean far enough from shore so that it has not started to break (complications involved in describing real waves will be discussed later in this tutorial).
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 20. Path Difference and Interference - This simulation shows two identical waves that start at different locations. A third graph shows the sum of these two waves.
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 21. Impedance - This simulations models a string as a row of individual masses connected by invisible springs. Waves are reflected in the middle of this string because the mass of the string is different on the left as compared with the right.
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 22. Dispersion of Light - This simulation shows visible light passing through a prism. You can choose the color and see what the index is for that wavelength.
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 23. Dispersion of Fourier Components - This simulation starts with the first four components of the Fourier series for a traveling square wave with no dispersion. Changing the angular frequency of a component causes the initial wave function to distort due to dispersion.
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 24. Diffraction - This simulation shows what happens to a plane-wave light source (below the simulation, not shown) as it passes through an opening. The wavelength of the waves and the size of the opening can be adjusted.
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 25. Doppler Effect - This simulation models at the Doppler effect for sound; the black circle is the source and the red circle is the receiver. If either the source or the receiver of a wave are in motion the apparent wavelength and frequency of the received wave change. This is apparent shift in frequency of a moving source or observer is called the Doppler Effect. The speed of the wave is not affected by the motion of the source or receiver and neither is the amplitude.
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 26. EM Waves from an Accelerating Charge - This simulation shows an accelerating positive charge and the electric field around it in two dimensions. Because the charge is accelerated there will be a disturbance in the field. The energy carried by the disturbance comes from the input energy needed to accelerate the charge.
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 27. Antenna - This simulation shows the effect of a wave traveling in the x-direction on a second charge inside a receiving antenna. Only the y-component of the change in the electric field is shown (so an oscillation frequency of zero will show nothing, because there is only a constant electric field).
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 28. Electromagnetic Plane Waves - This simulation shows a plane electromagnetic wave traveling in the y-direction. Both electric and magnetic fields are shown in the 3D representation.
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 29. Polarization - This simulation shows the electric field component[s] for a wave traveling straight towards the observer in the +y direction. A polarized wave was previously defined to be an electromagnetic wave that has its electric field confined to change in only one direction. In this simulation we further investigate polarized waves.
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 3. Speed of a Wave - There are three different velocities involved with describing a wave, one of which will be introduced in this simulation.
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 30. Wave Equation - In this simulation we look at the dynamics of waves; the physical situations and laws give rise to waves. We start with a string that has a standing wave on it and look at the forces acting on each end of a small segment of the string due to the neighboring sections. For visualization purposes the string is shown as a series of masses but the physical system is a continuous string. Although the derivation is for a string, similar results occur in many other systems.
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 31. Oscillator Chain - In this simulation we examine waves that occur on chains of masses with mass M coupled together with elastic, Hooke's law forces (F = -?x where ? is the spring constant and x is the amount the spring stretches). The masses are constrained to only move up and down so that the stretching depends only on the difference in the y locations of the masses.
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 32. Non-Linear Waves - This simulations shows what happens if forces other than tension act on a string. Some additional forces cause the dispersion we saw in simulations 22 and 23 but friction, dissipation and nonlinearity can cause other behavior as we will see here.
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 33 Solitons - This simulation explores a special solution of the non-linear wave equation where the effects of dispersion and dissipation (which tend to make a wave pulse spread out) are exactly compensated for by a nonlinear force (which, as we have seen, tends to cause steepening of a wave). In this case there may be a special wave pulse shape that can travel and maintain its shape called a soliton.
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 4. Transverse Waves - This simulation shows the motion of a wave that is up and down so that as the wave moves forward the material moves perpendicular (or transverse) to the direction the wave moves.
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 5. Simple Harmonic Motion - This simulation shows a mass on a spring and graphs the position time dependence.
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 6. Simple Harmonic Motion and Resonance - This simulation shows a driven damped harmonic oscillator.
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 7. Longitudinal Waves - This simulation shows waves where the motion of the material is back and forth in the same direction that the wave moves. Sound waves (in air and in solids) are examples of longitudinal waves.
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 8 Water Waves - Waver Waves, like many real physical waves, are combinations of three kinds of wave motion; transverse, longitudinal and torsional.
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• Waves: An Interactive Tutorial: 9. Two-Dimensional Waves - This simulation shows a plane wave in two dimensions traveling in the x-y plane, in the x direction, viewed from above. In these simulations the amplitude (in the z direction, towards you) is represented in grey-scale.
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• X-Ray Diffraction JS Model: 2D X-Ray Diffraction - A simulation with 2D apertures.
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• X-Ray Diffraction JS Model: X Ray Diffraction with 3D Configurations - The X-Ray Diffraction model computes diffraction patterns from frist principles for simple apertures.
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• X-Ray Imaging JS Model: X-Ray Imaging Simulation - Explores the basics of X-Ray imaging.
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• X-Ray Spectrum JS Model: X-Ray Spectrum Simulation - Shows the effect of varying the high voltage (kVp), added filtration and ripple in the high voltage supply to the X-ray tube.
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