Tools for knowing: Epistemological icons

In this class, we want you to learn to reason scientifically -- but we also want you to be able to talk about what it means to reason scientifically and to be aware of the broad, general methods that science uses to make sense of the world.

We therefore specifically identify some of these methods and point out to you when we are using them by using some "knowing-how-we-know" icons.  Here's the list. Go to each link to see the icon with a brief explanation. They'll appear throughout the text to help you see when we are using a particular method.

(click on the link to see the - for now - secret icon)


Joe Redish 7/3/11

Article 234
Last Modified: April 2, 2019