 Math Is Fun: Binary Digits
A binary number is composed of binary digits, called "bits" in computer science. There are only two ways to have a binary digit: "0" and "1" (or "on" and "off").  This tutorial explores the process of binary doubling and how exponents are used to express binary digits (a foundational understanding for progressing to the Hexadecimal system). Electronics Tutorials: Binary Numbers
In electronics, binary numbers have a very specific function in digital circuits. The number "1" (called Logic "1") represents a higher voltage state, while Logic "0" represents a lower voltage state. Digital waveforms and signals consist of discrete levels that fluctuate back and forth between these two states. This tutorial gives examples of binary numbers, showing how they are used in digital voltage output. It also explores how the digital outputs differ from analog voltage outputs, concepts which are often misunderstood. Note: This resource would be a great supplement for the AAPT Learning Module, "Analog-To-Digital". Math Is Fun: Binary Number System
Need to make modifications for students who are struggling with the concepts of binary numbers? This free tutorial explains the binary number system in very simple terminology, emphasizing the importance of place value. Charts and diagrams are liberally used to show multiple ways to represent binary numbers. Also included are example problems with solutions and a set of 10 conversion problems. Binary to Decimal to Hexadecimal Converter
This digital tool from MathIsFun.com will generate four binary types: 0001, signed 8-bit, signed 16-bit, and signed 32-bit. It can convert negatives and fractional parts as well. The tool is free and easy to use.