Mirrors
The reflection of light from mirrors is an example of waves interacting with boundary conditions.
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Collisions with Boundaries

Boundary conditions determine the behavior of the wave when it collides with the edge of an object.
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Standing Waves on a String and in a Tube

Standing waves are created on strings and in tubes with open or fixed ends.
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Refraction
Refraction occurs when light waves move from one medium to another.
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Lenses

Lenses use refraction to bend light waves.
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Path Difference and Interference

Difference in path lengths of waves due to boundary conditions can lead to constructive or destructive interference.
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Impedance
Changes in the material type a wave passes through can cause both reflection and transmission of the wave at the boundary.
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Dispersion of Light

A prism separates light into component colors due to the different index of refraction of difference wavelengths.
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Dispersion of Fourier Components
The difference in wave velocity for difference wavelengths in a material, the dispersion, results in changing wave shapes.
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Diffraction

Diffraction is the bending of waves around barriers and slits.
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