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X-Ray Spectrum Model
written by Michael R. Gallis
TheX-Ray Spectrum Model shows the effect of varying the high voltage (kVp), added filtration and ripple in the high voltage supply to the X-ray tube. The physical mechanisms by which X-rays are produced are Bremsstrahlung (in which collisions of the cathode electrons convert some of their energy into X-ray photons) and characteristic X-rays (in which the cathode electrons kick an inner shell electron out of an atom, and an X-ray photon is release when one of the atom's outer shell electron transitions to the inner shell). Changing the accelerating voltage of the cathode electrons (i.e. changing kVp) affects both mechanisms of X-ray production. Adding filtration to the X-ray beam reduces its intensity, but does not reduce all energy X-rays equally.

The X-Ray Spectrum Model was created by Michael Gallis using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. You can examine and modify this compiled EJS model if you run the model (double click on the model's jar file), right-click within a plot, and select "Open Ejs Model" from the pop-up menu. You must, of course, have EJS installed on your computer. 

Please note that this resource requires at least version 1.6 of Java (JRE).
1 source code document is available
Subjects Levels Resource Types
Electricity & Magnetism
- Electromagnetic Radiation
General Physics
- Computational Physics
Modern Physics
- Atomic Physics
= Absorption
- Lower Undergraduate
- High School
- Upper Undergraduate
- Instructional Material
= Interactive Simulation
Material Category Lab Software Type Ratings
- Software Exchange
- Computer Code
- Simulation
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Access Rights:
Free access
This material is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 license.
Rights Holder:
Michael Gallis
Record Cloner:
Metadata instance created April 15, 2014 by Wolfgang Christian
Record Updated:
September 29, 2014 by Ramon Torres-Isea
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Record Link
AIP Format
M. Gallis, Computer Program X-RAY SPECTRUM MODEL (2014), WWW Document, (
M. Gallis, Computer Program X-RAY SPECTRUM MODEL (2014), <>.
APA Format
Gallis, M. (2014). X-Ray Spectrum Model [Computer software]. Retrieved June 20, 2024, from
Chicago Format
Gallis, Michael. "X-Ray Spectrum Model." (accessed 20 June 2024).
MLA Format
Gallis, Michael. X-Ray Spectrum Model. Computer software. 2014. Java (JRE) 1.6. 20 June 2024 <>.
BibTeX Export Format
@misc{ Author = "Michael Gallis", Title = {X-Ray Spectrum Model}, Year = {2014} }
Refer Export Format

%A Michael Gallis %T X-Ray Spectrum Model %D 2014 %U %O application/java

EndNote Export Format

%0 Computer Program %A Gallis, Michael %D 2014 %T X-Ray Spectrum Model %U

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X-Ray Spectrum Model:

Is Based On Easy Java Simulations Modeling and Authoring Tool

The Easy Java Simulations Modeling and Authoring Tool is needed to explore the computational model used in the X-Ray Spectrum Model.

relation by Wolfgang Christian

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