Journal Article Detail Page

American Journal of Physics
written by Elena Gallo and Donald Marolf
This Resource Letter is designed to guide students, educators, and researchers through (some of) the literature on black holes. We discuss both the physics and astrophysics of black holes. We emphasize breadth over depth, and review articles over primary sources. We include resources ranging from nontechnical discussions appropriate for broad audiences to technical reviews of current research. Topics addressed include classification of stationary solutions, perturbations and stability of black holes, numerical simulations, collisions, the production of gravity waves, black-hole thermodynamics and Hawking radiation, quantum treatments of black holes, black holes in both higher and lower dimensions, and connections to nuclear and condensed-matter physics. On the astronomical end, we also cover the physics of gas accretion onto black holes, relativistic jets, gravitationally redshifted emission lines, evidence for stellar-mass black holes in binary systems and supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies, the quest for intermediate-mass black holes, the assembly and merging history of supermassive black holes through cosmic time, and their affects on the evolution of galaxies.
American Journal of Physics: Volume 77, Issue 4, Pages 294-307
Subjects Levels Resource Types
- General Relativity
= Black Holes
= Gravitational Waves
- Graduate/Professional
- Reference Material
= Article
= Bibliography
Intended Users Formats Ratings
- Researchers
- Learners
- Educators
- General Publics
- text/html
- application/pdf
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© 2009 American Association of Physics Teachers
Galactic centre, accretion, astrophysical jets, binary stars, black holes, gravitation, gravitational red shift, numerical analysis, perturbation theory, physics education, stellar mass, supergiant stars
Record Creator:
Metadata instance created April 26, 2009 by Lyle Barbato
Record Updated:
February 20, 2013 by Bruce Mason
Last Update
when Cataloged:
April 1, 2009
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Record Link
AIP Format
E. Gallo and D. Marolf, Am. J. Phys. 77 (4), 294 (2009), WWW Document, (
E. Gallo and D. Marolf, Resource Letter BH-2: Black Holes, Am. J. Phys. 77 (4), 294 (2009), <>.
APA Format
Gallo, E., & Marolf, D. (2009, April 1). Resource Letter BH-2: Black Holes. Am. J. Phys., 77(4), 294-307. Retrieved May 20, 2022, from
Chicago Format
Gallo, Elena, and Donald Marolf. "Resource Letter BH-2: Black Holes." Am. J. Phys. 77, no. 4, (April 1, 2009): 294-307, (accessed 20 May 2022).
MLA Format
Gallo, Elena, and Donald Marolf. "Resource Letter BH-2: Black Holes." Am. J. Phys. 77.4 (2009): 294-307. 20 May 2022 <>.
BibTeX Export Format
@article{ Author = "Elena Gallo and Donald Marolf", Title = {Resource Letter BH-2: Black Holes}, Journal = {Am. J. Phys.}, Volume = {77}, Number = {4}, Pages = {294-307}, Month = {April}, Year = {2009} }
Refer Export Format

%A Elena Gallo %A Donald Marolf %T Resource Letter BH-2: Black Holes %J Am. J. Phys. %V 77 %N 4 %D April 1, 2009 %P 294-307 %U %O text/html

EndNote Export Format

%0 Journal Article %A Gallo, Elena %A Marolf, Donald %D April 1, 2009 %T Resource Letter BH-2: Black Holes %J Am. J. Phys. %V 77 %N 4 %P 294-307 %8 April 1, 2009 %U

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