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# Chapter 20: Kinetic Theory and Ideal Gas Law

The connection between the macroscopic quantities of temperature and pressure and the microscopic quantities of internal energy and momentum is the subject of the kinetic theory of gases. We use the ideal gas as a model system to explore the connections between macroscopic and microscopic quantities. Often, we will use pressure-volume diagrams (PV diagrams) to provide a description of a thermodynamic process to show the work done and the change in internal energy associated with an input of energy.

# Table of Contents

## Illustrations

- Illustration 20.1: Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution.
- Illustration 20.2: Kinetic Theory, Temperature, and Pressure.
- Illustration 20.3: Thermodynamic Processes.
- Illustration 20.4: Evaporative Cooling.

## Explorations

- Exploration 20.1: Kinetic Theory, Microscopic and Macroscopic Connections.
- Exploration 20.2: Partial Pressure of Gases.
- Exploration 20.3: Ideal Gas Law.
- Exploration 20.4: Equipartition Theorem.
- Exploration 20.5: PV Diagrams and Work.
- Exploration 20.6: Specific Heat at Constant Pressure and Constant Volume.

## Problems

- Problem 20.1: Increase N, what happens?
- Problem 20.2: Find the warmer wall.
- Problem 20.3: Rank mass of particles.
- Problem 20.4: Kinetic energy of diatomic and monatomic particles.
- Problem 20.5: What's wrong with this compression?
- Problem 20.6: Balloon expanding as it rises in a liquid.
- Problem 20.7: Coefficient of expansion of an ideal gas.
- Problem 20.8: Find the work done in a compression.
- Problem 20.9: Find work and heat input or output from a PV diagram.
- Problem 20.10: Find work and heat input or output for a compression.
- Problem 20.11: Rank the expansions by work done and heat absorbed.
- Problem 20.12: Determine the adiabatic coefficient (γ) for the expanding gas.