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Learning and Individual Differences

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written by Edward L. Deci, Richard M. Ryan, and Geoffrey C. Williams
This article analyzes the scientific literature related to self-regulation in terms of self-determination theory, using the concepts of intrinsic motivation and the internalization of extrinsic motivation. Laboratory experiments and field studies are reviewed indicating that: (1) intrinsic motivation and fully internalized extrinsic motivation are positively associated with high quality learning and personal adjustment; and (2) maintaining intrinsic motivation and internalizing extrinsic motivation are facilitated by social contexts that allow satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Such contexts are ones that are characterized by the provision of choice, optimal challenge, informational feedback, interpersonal involvement, and acknowledgment of feelings.
Learning and Individual Differences: Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 165-183
Subjects Levels Resource Types
Education Practices
- Learning Environment
- Pedagogy
- High School
- Middle School
- Lower Undergraduate
- Reference Material
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Access Rights:
Limited free access
This article is part of a special edition of the "Learning and Individual Differences" journal, which is accessible without subscription at ScienceDirect
Restriction:
© 1996 Elsevier, Inc.
DOI:
10.1016/S1041-6080(96)90013-8
ISSN Number:
1041-6080
Keywords:
intrinsic motivation, motivational theory, self efficacy, student motivation
Record Creator:
Metadata instance created July 6, 2022 by Lauren Bauman
Record Updated:
July 27, 2022 by Caroline Hall
Last Update
when Cataloged:
July 26, 1996
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Record Link
AIP Format
E. Deci, R. Ryan, and G. Williams, , Learn. Individ. Differ. 8 (3), 165 (1996), WWW Document, (https://doi.org/10.1016/s1041-6080(96)90013-8).
AJP/PRST-PER
E. Deci, R. Ryan, and G. Williams, Need satisfaction and the self-regulation of learning, Learn. Individ. Differ. 8 (3), 165 (1996), <https://doi.org/10.1016/s1041-6080(96)90013-8>.
APA Format
Deci, E., Ryan, R., & Williams, G. (1996, July 26). Need satisfaction and the self-regulation of learning. Learn. Individ. Differ., 8(3), 165-183. Retrieved December 7, 2023, from https://doi.org/10.1016/s1041-6080(96)90013-8
Chicago Format
Deci, E, R. Ryan, and G. Williams. "Need satisfaction and the self-regulation of learning." Learn. Individ. Differ. 8, no. 3, (July 26, 1996): 165-183, https://doi.org/10.1016/s1041-6080(96)90013-8 (accessed 7 December 2023).
MLA Format
Deci, Edward L., Richard M. Ryan, and Geoffrey C. Williams. "Need satisfaction and the self-regulation of learning." Learn. Individ. Differ. 8.3 (1996): 165-183. 7 Dec. 2023 <https://doi.org/10.1016/s1041-6080(96)90013-8>.
BibTeX Export Format
@article{ Author = "Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan and Geoffrey C. Williams", Title = {Need satisfaction and the self-regulation of learning}, Journal = {Learn. Individ. Differ.}, Volume = {8}, Number = {3}, Pages = {165-183}, Month = {July}, Year = {1996} }
Refer Export Format

%A Edward L. Deci %A Richard M. Ryan %A Geoffrey C. Williams %T Need satisfaction and the self-regulation of learning %J Learn. Individ. Differ. %V 8 %N 3 %D July 26, 1996 %P 165-183 %U https://doi.org/10.1016/s1041-6080(96)90013-8 %O text/html

EndNote Export Format

%0 Journal Article %A Deci, Edward L. %A Ryan, Richard M. %A Williams, Geoffrey C. %D July 26, 1996 %T Need satisfaction and the self-regulation of learning %J Learn. Individ. Differ. %V 8 %N 3 %P 165-183 %8 July 26, 1996 %@ 1041-6080 %U https://doi.org/10.1016/s1041-6080(96)90013-8


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