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written by Jim Nelson and Jane Nelson
This lab activity has students create a pendulum with a one second period.  Students must explore the importance of physical properties, such as length of the string and mass of the bob, to determine what they affect the period.
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Subjects Levels Resource Types
Classical Mechanics
- Applications of Newton's Laws
Oscillations & Waves
- Oscillations
= Pendula
- High School
- Middle School
- Instructional Material
= Activity
= Laboratory
= Lesson/Lesson Plan
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© 2004 Jim and Jane Nelson
Keywords:
amplitude, harmonic motion , pendulum period
Record Creator:
Metadata instance created March 17, 2005 by Bruce Mason
Record Updated:
March 20, 2014 by Caroline Hall
Last Update
when Cataloged:
March 17, 2005
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### AAAS Benchmark Alignments (2008 Version)

#### 4. The Physical Setting

4F. Motion
• 6-8: 4F/M3a. An unbalanced force acting on an object changes its speed or direction of motion, or both.
• 9-12: 4F/H8. Any object maintains a constant speed and direction of motion unless an unbalanced outside force acts on it.

#### 9. The Mathematical World

9B. Symbolic Relationships
• 9-12: 9B/H4. Tables, graphs, and symbols are alternative ways of representing data and relationships that can be translated from one to another.
• 9-12: 9B/H5. When a relationship is represented in symbols, numbers can be substituted for all but one of the symbols and the possible value of the remaining symbol computed. Sometimes the relationship may be satisfied by one value, sometimes by more than one, and sometimes not at all.

#### 11. Common Themes

11A. Systems
• 6-8: 11A/M2. Thinking about things as systems means looking for how every part relates to others. The output from one part of a system (which can include material, energy, or information) can become the input to other parts. Such feedback can serve to control what goes on in the system as a whole.
• 9-12: 11A/H1. A system usually has some properties that are different from those of its parts, but appear because of the interaction of those parts.
• 9-12: 11A/H2. Understanding how things work and designing solutions to problems of almost any kind can be facilitated by systems analysis. In defining a system, it is important to specify its boundaries and subsystems, indicate its relation to other systems, and identify what its input and output are expected to be.

### Next Generation Science Standards

#### Disciplinary Core Ideas (K-12)

Types of Interactions (PS2.B)
• Forces that act at a distance (electric, magnetic, and gravitational) can be explained by fields that extend through space and can be mapped by their effect on a test object (a charged object, or a ball, respectively). (6-8)
Defining and Delimiting an Engineering Problem (ETS1.A)
• The more precisely a design task's criteria and constraints can be defined, the more likely it is that the designed solution will be successful. Specification of constraints includes consideration of scientific principles and other relevant knowledge that is likely to limit possible solutions. (6-8)
Developing Possible Solutions (ETS1.B)
• There are systematic processes for evaluating solutions with respect to how well they meet the criteria and constraints of a problem. (6-8)
• A solution needs to be tested, and then modified on the basis of the test results, in order to improve it. (6-8)
• Models of all kinds are important for testing solutions. (6-8)

#### Crosscutting Concepts (K-12)

Cause and Effect (K-12)
• Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural systems. (6-8)
• Systems can be designed to cause a desired effect. (9-12)

#### Science and Engineering Practices (K-12)

Analyzing and Interpreting Data (K-12)
• Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data. (9-12)
• Analyze data using tools, technologies, and/or models (e.g., computational, mathematical) in order to make valid and reliable scientific claims or determine an optimal design solution. (9-12)
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions (K-12)
• Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include constructing explanations and designing solutions supported by multiple sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories. (6-8)
• Apply scientific ideas or principles to design an object, tool, process or system. (6-8)
• Apply scientific ideas to construct an explanation for real-world phenomena, examples, or events. (6-8)
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations (K-12)
• Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include investigations that use multiple variables and provide evidence to support explanations or design solutions. (6-8)
• Plan an investigation individually and collaboratively, and in the design: identify independent and dependent variables and controls, what tools are needed to do the gathering, how measurements will be recorded, and how many data are needed to support a claim. (6-8)
• Planning and carrying out investigations in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical, and empirical models. (9-12)
• Plan and conduct an investigation individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design: decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements and consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, cost, risk, time), and refine the design accordingly. (9-12)
Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence (K-12)
• Science knowledge is based upon logical connections between evidence and explanations. (6-8)
• Science disciplines share common rules of obtaining and evaluating empirical evidence. (6-8)
• Science knowledge is based on empirical evidence. (9-12)
Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking (5-12)
• Mathematical and computational thinking at the 6–8 level builds on K–5 and progresses to identifying patterns in large data sets and using mathematical concepts to support explanations and arguments. (6-8)
• Use mathematical representations to describe and/or support scientific conclusions and design solutions. (6-8)
• Mathematical and computational thinking at the 9–12 level builds on K–8 and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions. (9-12)
• Use mathematical representations of phenomena to describe explanations. (9-12)

### Common Core State Standards for Mathematics Alignments

#### High School — Functions (9-12)

Interpreting Functions (9-12)
• F-IF.4 For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship.?
• F-IF.6 Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval. Estimate the rate of change from a graph.
Trigonometric Functions (9-12)
• F-TF.5 Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified amplitude, frequency, and midline.?
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AIP Format
J. Nelson and J. Nelson, (2004), WWW Document, (http://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=2151&DocID=8).
AJP/PRST-PER
J. Nelson and J. Nelson, Making a One Second Timer (2004), <http://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=2151&DocID=8>.
APA Format
Nelson, J., & Nelson, J. (2005, March 17). Making a One Second Timer. Retrieved April 25, 2014, from http://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=2151&DocID=8
Chicago Format
Nelson, Jim, and Jane Nelson. Making a One Second Timer. March 17, 2005. http://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=2151&DocID=8 (accessed 25 April 2014).
MLA Format
Nelson, Jim, and Jane Nelson. Making a One Second Timer. 2004. 17 Mar. 2005. 25 Apr. 2014 <http://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=2151&DocID=8>.
BibTeX Export Format
@misc{ Author = "Jim Nelson and Jane Nelson", Title = {Making a One Second Timer}, Volume = {2014}, Number = {25 April 2014}, Month = {March 17, 2005}, Year = {2004} }
Refer Export Format

%A Jim Nelson
%A Jane Nelson
%T Making a One Second Timer
%D March 17, 2005
%O application/pdf

EndNote Export Format

%0 Electronic Source
%A Nelson, Jim
%A Nelson, Jane
%D March 17, 2005
%T Making a One Second Timer
%V 2014
%N 25 April 2014
%8 March 17, 2005
%9 application/pdf

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The AIP Style presented is based on information from the AIP Style Manual.

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