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written by Eugenia Etkina
supported by the National Science Foundation
This learning cycle features five videotaped experiments, organized sequentially for introducing pressure and gases. It explores the relationship between pressure and volume, and volume vs. temperature of a gas. Each video includes learning goal, prior knowledge required, and post-activity questions. The instructional method is based on cognitive apprenticeship, in which students focus on scientific process by observing, finding patterns, modeling, predicting, testing, and revising. The materials were designed to mirror the activities of scientists when they construct and apply knowledge.

See Related Materials for links to the full collection by the same authors and for free access to an article explaining the theoretical basis for this instructional method.

Please note that this resource requires Quicktime.
Subjects Levels Resource Types
Education Foundations
- Cognition
= Cognition Development
- Learning Theory
= Cognitive Apprenticeship
Thermo & Stat Mech
- Thermal Properties of Matter
= Pressure
= Temperature
- High School
- Lower Undergraduate
- Instructional Material
= Activity
= Unit of Instruction
- Audio/Visual
= Movie/Animation
Appropriate Courses Categories Ratings
- Conceptual Physics
- Algebra-based Physics
- AP Physics
- Activity
- Laboratory
- New teachers
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© 2004 Rutgers University
ISLE, Investigative Science Learning Environment, gas laws, gas pressure, gas volume, video clips, volume of gases
Record Cloner:
Metadata instance created November 19, 2011 by Caroline Hall
Record Updated:
January 12, 2012 by Lyle Barbato
Last Update
when Cataloged:
September 19, 2008

AAAS Benchmark Alignments (2008 Version)

4. The Physical Setting

4D. The Structure of Matter
  • 6-8: 4D/M8. Most substances can exist as a solid, liquid, or gas depending on temperature.
4E. Energy Transformations
  • 6-8: 4E/M3. Thermal energy is transferred through a material by the collisions of atoms within the material. Over time, the thermal energy tends to spread out through a material and from one material to another if they are in contact. Thermal energy can also be transferred by means of currents in air, water, or other fluids. In addition, some thermal energy in all materials is transformed into light energy and radiated into the environment by electromagnetic waves; that light energy can be transformed back into thermal energy when the electromagnetic waves strike another material. As a result, a material tends to cool down unless some other form of energy is converted to thermal energy in the material.
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Record Link
AIP Format
E. Etkina, (2004), WWW Document, (http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3/cycleindex.php?topicid=8).
E. Etkina, Physics Teaching Technology Resource: Learning Cycles on Gases, (2004), <http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3/cycleindex.php?topicid=8>.
APA Format
Etkina, E. (2008, September 19). Physics Teaching Technology Resource: Learning Cycles on Gases. Retrieved January 19, 2017, from http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3/cycleindex.php?topicid=8
Chicago Format
Etkina, Eugenia. Physics Teaching Technology Resource: Learning Cycles on Gases. September 19, 2008. http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3/cycleindex.php?topicid=8 (accessed 19 January 2017).
MLA Format
Etkina, Eugenia. Physics Teaching Technology Resource: Learning Cycles on Gases. 2004. 19 Sep. 2008. National Science Foundation. 19 Jan. 2017 <http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3/cycleindex.php?topicid=8>.
BibTeX Export Format
@misc{ Author = "Eugenia Etkina", Title = {Physics Teaching Technology Resource: Learning Cycles on Gases}, Volume = {2017}, Number = {19 January 2017}, Month = {September 19, 2008}, Year = {2004} }
Refer Export Format

%A Eugenia Etkina
%T Physics Teaching Technology Resource: Learning Cycles on Gases
%D September 19, 2008
%U http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3/cycleindex.php?topicid=8
%O video/quicktime

EndNote Export Format

%0 Electronic Source
%A Etkina, Eugenia
%D September 19, 2008
%T Physics Teaching Technology Resource: Learning Cycles on Gases
%V 2017
%N 19 January 2017
%8 September 19, 2008
%9 video/quicktime
%U http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3/cycleindex.php?topicid=8

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The AIP Style presented is based on information from the AIP Style Manual.

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Physics Teaching Technology Resource: Learning Cycles on Gases:

Is Part Of Rutgers Physics Teaching Technology Resource

A link to the full collection of learning cycles for introductory physics, developed by the same authors.

relation by Caroline Hall
Is Based On ISLE: Investigative Science Learning Environment

This is the website for ISLE (Investigative Science Learning Environment), the instructional approach upon which the Rutgers learning cycles for introductory physics are based.

relation by Caroline Hall

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