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published by the University of California Museum of Paleontology
supported by the National Science Foundation
This resource gives learners a framework for building a logical argument based on evidence obtained from observation. It provides models of good scientific arguments and tips for constructing an evidence-based conclusion.

This web page is part of the Understanding Science project developed by the University of California Museum of Paleontology, in collaboration with a diverse group of scientists and teachers.
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Education Foundations
- Research Design & Methodology
= Evaluation
General Physics
- Philosophy
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- Lower Undergraduate
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- Instructional Material
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- Physical Science
- Physics First
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Format:
text/html
Access Rights:
Free access
Restriction:
© 2010 University of California Museum of Paleontology, 2010, .
Keywords:
evidence, evidence-based, experiment, experimental design, experimental hypothesis, experimental validity, fair test, hypothesis, peer review, replicable, replicable research, research design, research question, research validity, scientific data, scientific evidence, scientific hypothesis, scientific method
Record Cloner:
Metadata instance created October 22, 2010 by Caroline Hall
Record Updated:
October 22, 2010 by Caroline Hall
Last Update
when Cataloged:
January 3, 2010

AAAS Benchmark Alignments (2008 Version)

1. The Nature of Science

1A. The Scientific Worldview
  • 6-8: 1A/M2. Scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way.
1C. The Scientific Enterprise
  • 6-8: 1C/M7. Accurate record-keeping, openness, and replication are essential for maintaining an investigator's credibility with other scientists and society.
  • 9-12: 1C/H1. The early Egyptian, Greek, Chinese, Hindu, and Arabic cultures are responsible for many scientific and mathematical ideas and technological inventions. Modern science is based on traditions of thought that came together in Europe about 500 years ago. People from all cultures now contribute to that tradition.

12. Habits of Mind

12D. Communication Skills
  • 9-12: 12D/H7. Use tables, charts, and graphs in making arguments and claims in oral, written, and visual presentations.

AAAS Benchmark Alignments (1993 Version)

1. THE NATURE OF SCIENCE

B. Scientific Inquiry
  • 1B (6-8) #4.  New ideas in science sometimes spring from unexpected findings, and they usually lead to new investigations.
  • 1B (9-12) #4.  There are different traditions in science about what is investigated and how, but they all have in common certain basic beliefs about the value of evidence, logic, and good arguments. And there is agreement that progress in all fields of science depends on intelligence, hard work, imagination, and even chance.

12. HABITS OF MIND

E. Critical-Response Skills
  • 12E (6-8) #3.  Be skeptical of arguments based on very small samples of data, biased samples, or samples for which there was no control sample.
  • 12E (6-8) #4.  Be aware that there may be more than one good way to interpret a given set of findings.
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Record Link
AIP Format
(University of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley, 2010), WWW Document, (http://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/coreofscience_01).
AJP/PRST-PER
Understanding Science: Relating Evidence and Ideas (University of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley, 2010), <http://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/coreofscience_01>.
APA Format
Understanding Science: Relating Evidence and Ideas. (2010, January 3). Retrieved September 18, 2014, from University of California Museum of Paleontology: http://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/coreofscience_01
Chicago Format
National Science Foundation. Understanding Science: Relating Evidence and Ideas. Berkeley: University of California Museum of Paleontology, January 3, 2010. http://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/coreofscience_01 (accessed 18 September 2014).
MLA Format
Understanding Science: Relating Evidence and Ideas. Berkeley: University of California Museum of Paleontology, 2010. 3 Jan. 2010. National Science Foundation. 18 Sep. 2014 <http://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/coreofscience_01>.
BibTeX Export Format
@misc{ Title = {Understanding Science: Relating Evidence and Ideas}, Publisher = {University of California Museum of Paleontology}, Volume = {2014}, Number = {18 September 2014}, Month = {January 3, 2010}, Year = {2010} }
Refer Export Format

%T Understanding Science: Relating Evidence and Ideas
%D January 3, 2010
%I University of California Museum of Paleontology
%C Berkeley
%U http://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/coreofscience_01
%O text/html

EndNote Export Format

%0 Electronic Source
%D January 3, 2010
%T Understanding Science: Relating Evidence and Ideas
%I University of California Museum of Paleontology
%V 2014
%N 18 September 2014
%8 January 3, 2010
%9 text/html
%U http://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/coreofscience_01


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The AIP Style presented is based on information from the AIP Style Manual.

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