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American Journal of Physics
written by Frederick Reif and Lisa Scott
Our attempts to improve physics instruction have led us to analyze thought processes needed to apply scientific principles to problems--and to recognize that reliable performance requires the basic cognitive functions of deciding, implementing, and assessing. Using a reciprocal-teaching strategy to teach such thought processes explicitly, we have developed computer programs called PALs (Personal Assistants for Learning) in which computers and students alternately coach each other. These computer-implemented tutorials make it practically feasible to provide students with individual guidance and feedback ordinarily unavailable in most courses. We constructed PALs specifically designed to teach the application of Newton's laws. In a comparative experimental study these computer tutorials were found to be nearly as effective as individual tutoring by expert teachers--and considerably more effective than the instruction provided in a well-taught physics class. Furthermore, almost all of the students using the PALs perceived them as very helpful to their learning. These results suggest that the proposed instructional approach could fruitfully be extended to improve instruction in various practically realistic contexts.
American Journal of Physics: Volume 67, Issue 9, Pages 819-831
Subjects Levels Resource Types
Education - Applied Research
- Instructional Material Design
- Pedagogy
- Technology
= Computers
General Physics
- Physics Education Research
- Lower Undergraduate
- High School
- Instructional Material
= Tutorial
- Reference Material
= Research study
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© 1999 American Journal of Physics
Additional information is available.
DOI:
10.1119/1.19130
PII:
S0002-9505(99)02806-8
Keywords:
Computer Assisted Instruction, Computer Uses in Education, Force, Higher Education, Instructional Effectiveness, Instructional Innovation, Motion, Physics, Problem Solving, Science Education, Student Attitudes
Record Creator:
Metadata instance created July 14, 2005 by Lyle Barbato
Record Updated:
November 23, 2005 by Vince Kuo
Last Update
when Cataloged:
September 1, 1999
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Record Link
AIP Format
F. Reif and L. Scott, Am. J. Phys. 67 (9), 819 (1999), WWW Document, (http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.19130).
AJP/PRST-PER
F. Reif and L. Scott, Teaching scientific thinking skills: Students and computers coaching each other Am. J. Phys. 67 (9), 819 (1999), <http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.19130>.
APA Format
Reif, F., & Scott, L. (1999, September 1). Teaching scientific thinking skills: Students and computers coaching each other. Am. J. Phys., 67(9), 819-831. Retrieved July 30, 2014, from http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.19130
Chicago Format
Reif, Frederick, and Lisa Scott. "Teaching scientific thinking skills: Students and computers coaching each other." Am. J. Phys. 67, no. 9, (September 1, 1999): 819-831, http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.19130 (accessed 30 July 2014).
MLA Format
Reif, Frederick, and Lisa Scott. "Teaching scientific thinking skills: Students and computers coaching each other." Am. J. Phys. 67.9 (1999): 819-831. 30 July 2014 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.19130>.
BibTeX Export Format
@article{ Author = "Frederick Reif and Lisa Scott", Title = {Teaching scientific thinking skills: Students and computers coaching each other}, Journal = {Am. J. Phys.}, Volume = {67}, Number = {9}, Pages = {819-831}, Month = {September}, Year = {1999} }
Refer Export Format

%A Frederick Reif
%A Lisa Scott
%T Teaching scientific thinking skills: Students and  computers coaching each other
%J Am. J. Phys.
%V 67
%N 9
%D September 1, 1999
%P 819-831
%U http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.19130
%O text/html

EndNote Export Format

%0 Journal Article
%A Reif, Frederick
%A Scott, Lisa
%D September 1, 1999
%T Teaching scientific thinking skills: Students and  computers coaching each other
%J Am. J. Phys.
%V 67
%N 9
%P 819-831
%8 September 1, 1999
%U http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.19130


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The APA Style presented is based on information from APA Style.org: Electronic References.

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