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written by Michael Davidson, Matthew J. Parry-Hill, Mortimer Abramowitz, Douglas B. Murphy, Kenneth R. Spring, Robert Sutter, and Thomas J. Fellers
published by the Olympus America, Inc. and the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory
This item is a tutorial relating to birefringence, also known as double refraction of light.  Birefringence occurs naturally in many transparent  solids such as calcite crystals, but can also be created in optically isotropic materials.  This tutorial contains an introduction to birefringence and links to several related interactive Java simulations.  It is part of a larger collection of materials for students of introductory optics and microscopy developed by the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory.

Please note that this resource requires Java.
Subjects Levels Resource Types
Optics
- Polarization
= Birefringence
- Lower Undergraduate
- Instructional Material
= Interactive Simulation
= Tutorial
- Reference Material
Intended Users Formats Ratings
- Learners
- Educators
- text/html
- application/java
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Access Rights:
Free access
Restriction:
© 1998 National High Magnetic Field Laboratory-2008
Keywords:
Simulations, birefringence, crossed polarization, double refraction, light polarization, microscopy, optical instruments, optics, polarization, polarized light microscope, tutorials
Record Cloner:
Metadata instance created April 2, 2008 by Caroline Hall
Record Updated:
September 19, 2008 by Taha Mzoughi
Last Update
when Cataloged:
August 1, 2003
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Record Link
AIP Format
M. Davidson, M. Parry-Hill, M. Abramowitz, D. Murphy, K. Spring, R. Sutter, and T. Fellers, (Olympus America, Inc., Center Valley, 1998), WWW Document, (http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/lightandcolor/birefringencehome.html).
AJP/PRST-PER
M. Davidson, M. Parry-Hill, M. Abramowitz, D. Murphy, K. Spring, R. Sutter, and T. Fellers, Molecular Expressions: Optical Microscopy Primer - Optical Birefringence, (Olympus America, Inc., Center Valley, 1998), <http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/lightandcolor/birefringencehome.html>.
APA Format
Davidson, M., Parry-Hill, M., Abramowitz, M., Murphy, D., Spring, K., Sutter, R., & Fellers, T. (2003, August 1). Molecular Expressions: Optical Microscopy Primer - Optical Birefringence. Retrieved December 21, 2014, from Olympus America, Inc.: http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/lightandcolor/birefringencehome.html
Chicago Format
Davidson, M, M. Parry-Hill, M. Abramowitz, D. Murphy, K. Spring, R. Sutter, and T. Fellers. Molecular Expressions: Optical Microscopy Primer - Optical Birefringence. Center Valley: Olympus America, Inc., August 1, 2003. http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/lightandcolor/birefringencehome.html (accessed 21 December 2014).
MLA Format
Davidson, Michael, Matthew J. Parry-Hill, Mortimer Abramowitz, Douglas B. Murphy, Kenneth R. Spring, Robert Sutter, and Thomas J. Fellers. Molecular Expressions: Optical Microscopy Primer - Optical Birefringence. Center Valley: Olympus America, Inc., 1998. 1 Aug. 2003. 21 Dec. 2014 <http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/lightandcolor/birefringencehome.html>.
BibTeX Export Format
@misc{ Author = "Michael Davidson and Matthew J. Parry-Hill and Mortimer Abramowitz and Douglas B. Murphy and Kenneth R. Spring and Robert Sutter and Thomas J. Fellers", Title = {Molecular Expressions: Optical Microscopy Primer - Optical Birefringence}, Publisher = {Olympus America, Inc.}, Volume = {2014}, Number = {21 December 2014}, Month = {August 1, 2003}, Year = {1998} }
Refer Export Format

%A Michael Davidson
%A Matthew J. Parry-Hill
%A Mortimer Abramowitz
%A Douglas B. Murphy
%A Kenneth R. Spring
%A Robert Sutter
%A Thomas J. Fellers
%T Molecular Expressions: Optical Microscopy Primer - Optical Birefringence
%D August 1, 2003
%I Olympus America, Inc.
%C Center Valley
%U http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/lightandcolor/birefringencehome.html
%O text/html

EndNote Export Format

%0 Electronic Source
%A Davidson, Michael
%A Parry-Hill, Matthew J.
%A Abramowitz, Mortimer
%A Murphy, Douglas B.
%A Spring, Kenneth R.
%A Sutter, Robert
%A Fellers, Thomas J.
%D August 1, 2003
%T Molecular Expressions: Optical Microscopy Primer - Optical Birefringence
%I Olympus America, Inc.
%V 2014
%N 21 December 2014
%8 August 1, 2003
%9 text/html
%U http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/lightandcolor/birefringencehome.html


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Molecular Expressions: Optical Microscopy Primer - Optical Birefringence:

Contains Molecular Expressions: Michel-Levy Birefringence Chart

This item is an interactive Java simulation depicting the Michel-Levy birefringence color chart.  By clicking on the virtual chart, students can observe how birefringence, thickness of specimen, and path difference are correlated.

relation by Bruce Mason
Is the Basis For Molecular Expressions: Polarized Light Microscopy - Double Refraction (Birefringence) in Iceland Spar

This is an interactive Java simulation by the same authors on the topic of birefringence.  It simulates light being passed through a crystal of calcite (Iceland Spar), which has strong birefringent properties.  The user will see a double image from the refracted light rays.

relation by Bruce Mason
Is the Basis For Molecular Expressions: Polarized Light Microscopy - The Fresnel or Refractive Index Ellipsoid

This is an interactive Java simulation that depicts a 3-D ellipsoid that represents an optically positive birefringent crystal.  Users can adjust the optic axis and refractive index to observe the dielectric properties in all directions.

relation by Bruce Mason
Is the Basis For Molecular Expressions: Optical Microscopy Primer: Birefringence Variations with Crystal Orientation

This is an interactive Java simulation on the topic of birefringence.  It explores how the orientation of a crystal's optical axis is related to divergence of orthogonal wave pathways through the crystal.

relation by Bruce Mason
Is the Basis For Molecular Expressions: Optical Microscopy Primer - Birefringence in Calcite Crystals

This is an interactive Java simulation that depicts a virtual calcite crystal superimposed over the word "Birefringence".  By rotating the crystal and axis of the polarizer, users can see the image doubling effect caused by the crystal's birefringent properties.

relation by Bruce Mason

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