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written by Michael Davidson, Matthew J. Parry-Hill, and Mortimer Abramowitz
published by the Olympus America, Inc. and the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory
This item is an interactive virtual microscope simulation relating to birefringence, also known as double refraction.  Double refraction occurs naturally in materials such as calcite crystals, but can also be created in isotropic materials.  Birefringence is widely used in optical devices, such as LCD and color filters.  In this applet, users rotate a virtual polarizer from 0 to 180 degrees to see the effect on a variety of birefringent specimens.  

This item is part of a larger collection of materials for students of introductory optics and microscopy.  See Related Items for a full tutorial on polarized light microscopy by the same authors.

Please note that this resource requires Java.
Subjects Levels Resource Types
Optics
- Geometrical Optics
= Optical Instruments
- Interference
= Interference of Polarized Light
- Polarization
= Birefringence
- Lower Undergraduate
- High School
- Instructional Material
= Interactive Simulation
= Tutorial
- Reference Material
Intended Users Formats Ratings
- Learners
- Educators
- application/java
- text/html
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Access Rights:
Free access
Restriction:
© 1998 National High Magnetic Field Laboratory-2008
Keywords:
Simulations, birefringence, crossed polarization, double refraction, light polarization, microscopy, optical instruments, optics, polarization, polarized light microscope, tutorials
Record Cloner:
Metadata instance created April 2, 2008 by Caroline Hall
Record Updated:
April 27, 2009 by Lyle Barbato
Last Update
when Cataloged:
June 15, 2006
ComPADRE is beta testing Citation Styles!

Record Link
AIP Format
M. Davidson, M. Parry-Hill, and M. Abramowitz, (Olympus America, Inc., Center Valley, 1998), WWW Document, (http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/polarizedlight/polarizerrotation/).
AJP/PRST-PER
M. Davidson, M. Parry-Hill, and M. Abramowitz, Molecular Expressions: Polarized Light Microscopy - Polarizer Rotation and Specimen Birefringence (Olympus America, Inc., Center Valley, 1998), <http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/polarizedlight/polarizerrotation/>.
APA Format
Davidson, M., Parry-Hill, M., & Abramowitz, M. (2006, June 15). Molecular Expressions: Polarized Light Microscopy - Polarizer Rotation and Specimen Birefringence. Retrieved July 31, 2014, from Olympus America, Inc.: http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/polarizedlight/polarizerrotation/
Chicago Format
Davidson, M, M. Parry-Hill, and M. Abramowitz. Molecular Expressions: Polarized Light Microscopy - Polarizer Rotation and Specimen Birefringence. Center Valley: Olympus America, Inc., June 15, 2006. http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/polarizedlight/polarizerrotation/ (accessed 31 July 2014).
MLA Format
Davidson, Michael, Matthew J. Parry-Hill, and Mortimer Abramowitz. Molecular Expressions: Polarized Light Microscopy - Polarizer Rotation and Specimen Birefringence. Center Valley: Olympus America, Inc., 1998. 15 June 2006. 31 July 2014 <http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/polarizedlight/polarizerrotation/>.
BibTeX Export Format
@misc{ Author = "Michael Davidson and Matthew J. Parry-Hill and Mortimer Abramowitz", Title = {Molecular Expressions: Polarized Light Microscopy - Polarizer Rotation and Specimen Birefringence}, Publisher = {Olympus America, Inc.}, Volume = {2014}, Number = {31 July 2014}, Month = {June 15, 2006}, Year = {1998} }
Refer Export Format

%A Michael Davidson
%A Matthew J. Parry-Hill
%A Mortimer Abramowitz
%T Molecular Expressions: Polarized Light Microscopy - Polarizer Rotation and Specimen Birefringence
%D June 15, 2006
%I Olympus America, Inc.
%C Center Valley
%U http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/polarizedlight/polarizerrotation/
%O application/java

EndNote Export Format

%0 Electronic Source
%A Davidson, Michael
%A Parry-Hill, Matthew J.
%A Abramowitz, Mortimer
%D June 15, 2006
%T Molecular Expressions: Polarized Light Microscopy - Polarizer Rotation and Specimen Birefringence
%I Olympus America, Inc.
%V 2014
%N 31 July 2014
%8 June 15, 2006
%9 application/java
%U http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/polarizedlight/polarizerrotation/


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Citation Source Information

The AIP Style presented is based on information from the AIP Style Manual.

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Molecular Expressions: Polarized Light Microscopy - Polarizer Rotation and Specimen Birefringence:

Is Part Of Molecular Expressions: Optical Microscopy Primer - Polarized Light Microscopy

This is the full index of resources on polarized light microscopy by the same authors.  It includes basic concepts, microscope configuration, history of the technique and its applications, and full tutorials on optical birefringence and polarization of light.  Also included are links to more than a dozen related interactive Java simulations.

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