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Chapter 19: Heat and Temperature
The study of the relationship between heat, work and internal energy, described macroscopically by temperature, is the focus of thermodynamics. Heat is the energy transferred due to the temperature difference between objects and/or the energy transferred when work is done to change the internal energy of an object. The 2nd law of thermodynamics declares that heat flows naturally from objects of higher temperature to objects at lower temperature. We categorize the mechanism of heat transfer in terms of conduction, convection and radiation. As we study what happens when heat is added to materials, we explore state changes (melting-freezing, vaporizing-condensing) and temperature increases in solids and liquids. As the temperature increases, we also quantitatively describe the expansion of materials.
Table of Contents
- Illustration 19.1: Specific Heat and Temperature Change.
- Illustration 19.2: Heat Transfer, Conduction.
- Illustration 19.3: Heat Transfer, Radiation (and the Greenhouse Effect).
- Exploration 19.1: Mechanical Equivalent of Heat.
- Exploration 19.2: Expansion of Materials.
- Exploration 19.3: Calorimetry.
- Exploration 19.4: Heat Balance.
- Problem 19.1: Work and heat.
- Problem 19.2: Heating of a block stuck on a conveyor belt.
- Problem 19.3: Linear expansion.
- Problem 19.4: Thermal expansion of a plate.
- Problem 19.5: Fitting a plate over a ball-bearing.
- Problem 19.6: Specific heat and latent heat of fusion.
- Problem 19.7: Calorimetry: ranking task.
- Problem 19.8: Calorimetry: find the specific heat.
- Problem 19.9: Conductivity comparison.
- Problem 19.10: Window: single pane versus double pane.
- Problem 19.11: Water heater insulation.