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written by Michael Davidson, Matthew J. Parry-Hill, and Mortimer Abramowitz
published by the Olympus America, Inc. and the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory
This item is a Java simulation on the phenomenon known as birefringence (double refraction).  It depicts light passing through a crystal of calcite known as Iceland Spar, which has strong birefringent properties resulting in a double image.  Included is a text explanation of the basic concepts underlying the phenomenon.  

This item is part of a larger collection of materials for students of introductory optics and microscopy.  See Related items on this page for a full tutorial by the same authors on Optical Birefringence.

Please note that this resource requires Java.
Subjects Levels Resource Types
Optics
- Geometrical Optics
= Refraction - Flat Surfaces
- Polarization
= Birefringence
- Lower Undergraduate
- Instructional Material
= Interactive Simulation
= Tutorial
- Reference Material
Intended Users Formats Ratings
- Learners
- Educators
- application/java
- text/html
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Access Rights:
Free access
Restriction:
© 1998 National High Magnetic Field Laboratory-2008
Keywords:
Iceland Spar, Simulations, birefringence, double refraction, optics, polarization, polarized light, tutorial
Record Cloner:
Metadata instance created March 31, 2008 by Caroline Hall
Record Updated:
August 22, 2008 by Caroline Hall
Last Update
when Cataloged:
June 15, 2006
ComPADRE is beta testing Citation Styles!

Record Link
AIP Format
M. Davidson, M. Parry-Hill, and M. Abramowitz, (Olympus America, Inc., Center Valley, 1998), WWW Document, (http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/polarizedlight/icelandspar/index.html).
AJP/PRST-PER
M. Davidson, M. Parry-Hill, and M. Abramowitz, Molecular Expressions: Polarized Light Microscopy - Double Refraction (Birefringence) in Iceland Spar (Olympus America, Inc., Center Valley, 1998), <http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/polarizedlight/icelandspar/index.html>.
APA Format
Davidson, M., Parry-Hill, M., & Abramowitz, M. (2006, June 15). Molecular Expressions: Polarized Light Microscopy - Double Refraction (Birefringence) in Iceland Spar. Retrieved April 25, 2014, from Olympus America, Inc.: http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/polarizedlight/icelandspar/index.html
Chicago Format
Davidson, M, M. Parry-Hill, and M. Abramowitz. Molecular Expressions: Polarized Light Microscopy - Double Refraction (Birefringence) in Iceland Spar. Center Valley: Olympus America, Inc., June 15, 2006. http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/polarizedlight/icelandspar/index.html (accessed 25 April 2014).
MLA Format
Davidson, Michael, Matthew J. Parry-Hill, and Mortimer Abramowitz. Molecular Expressions: Polarized Light Microscopy - Double Refraction (Birefringence) in Iceland Spar. Center Valley: Olympus America, Inc., 1998. 15 June 2006. 25 Apr. 2014 <http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/polarizedlight/icelandspar/index.html>.
BibTeX Export Format
@misc{ Author = "Michael Davidson and Matthew J. Parry-Hill and Mortimer Abramowitz", Title = {Molecular Expressions: Polarized Light Microscopy - Double Refraction (Birefringence) in Iceland Spar}, Publisher = {Olympus America, Inc.}, Volume = {2014}, Number = {25 April 2014}, Month = {June 15, 2006}, Year = {1998} }
Refer Export Format

%A Michael Davidson
%A Matthew J. Parry-Hill
%A Mortimer Abramowitz
%T Molecular Expressions: Polarized Light Microscopy - Double Refraction (Birefringence) in Iceland Spar
%D June 15, 2006
%I Olympus America, Inc.
%C Center Valley
%U http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/polarizedlight/icelandspar/index.html
%O application/java

EndNote Export Format

%0 Electronic Source
%A Davidson, Michael
%A Parry-Hill, Matthew J.
%A Abramowitz, Mortimer
%D June 15, 2006
%T Molecular Expressions: Polarized Light Microscopy - Double Refraction (Birefringence) in Iceland Spar
%I Olympus America, Inc.
%V 2014
%N 25 April 2014
%8 June 15, 2006
%9 application/java
%U http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/polarizedlight/icelandspar/index.html


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Citation Source Information

The AIP Style presented is based on information from the AIP Style Manual.

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Molecular Expressions: Polarized Light Microscopy - Double Refraction (Birefringence) in Iceland Spar:

Is Part Of Molecular Expressions: Optical Microscopy Primer - Polarized Light Microscopy

This is the full index of resources on polarized light microscopy by the same authors.  It includes basic concepts, microscope configuration, history of the technique and its applications, and full tutorials on optical birefringence and polarization of light.  Also included are links to more than a dozen related interactive Java simulations.

relation by Bruce Mason
Covers the Same Topic As Molecular Expressions: Science, Optics & You - Birefringent Crystals in Polarized Light

This item is an interactive Java simulation by the same authors on the topic of birefringence.  It simulates a virtual microscope in which users can view a crystal in a full 360-degree rotation to see the effects of this phenomenon.

relation by Bruce Mason
Is Based On Molecular Expressions: Optical Microscopy Primer - Optical Birefringence

This item is the full tutorial by the same authors relating to birefringence, also known as double refraction of light.  It contains an introduction to birefringence and links to several related interactive Java simulations.

relation by Bruce Mason

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