Website Detail Page

published by the Nokia Bell Labs
This website presents a history of how Townes and Schawlow invented the laser. The story is supported by pictures and by quotations from the two inventors.
Subjects Levels Resource Types
General Physics
- History
Light
- Modern Optics
= Lasers
- High School
- Lower Undergraduate
- Reference Material
Intended Users Formats Ratings
- Learners
- text/html
- image/jpeg
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Additional Information
Physics To Go This resource was a Physics To Go feature from August 1, 2013 until August 16, 2013. View the feature here!


Access Rights: Free access
Restriction: © 1998 Lucent Technologies
Has a copyright or other licensing restriction.
Keywords: invention, inventors, laser, maser, physics history
Record Creator: Metadata instance created July 10, 2007 by Andrew Coughlin
Record Updated: Aug 24, 2016 by Lyle Barbato
Last Update
when Cataloged:
July 10, 2007
ComPADRE is beta testing Citation Styles!

Record Link
AIP Format
(Nokia Bell Labs, 1998), WWW Document, (http://www.bell-labs.com/about/stories-changed-world/inventing-laser/).
AJP/PRST-PER
From Maser to Laser - Schawlow and Townes Invent the Laser, (Nokia Bell Labs, 1998), <http://www.bell-labs.com/about/stories-changed-world/inventing-laser/>.
APA Format
From Maser to Laser - Schawlow and Townes Invent the Laser. (2007, July 10). Retrieved December 10, 2016, from Nokia Bell Labs: http://www.bell-labs.com/about/stories-changed-world/inventing-laser/
Chicago Format
Nokia Bell Labs. From Maser to Laser - Schawlow and Townes Invent the Laser. Nokia Bell Labs, July 10, 2007. http://www.bell-labs.com/about/stories-changed-world/inventing-laser/ (accessed 10 December 2016).
MLA Format
From Maser to Laser - Schawlow and Townes Invent the Laser. Nokia Bell Labs, 1998. 10 July 2007. 10 Dec. 2016 <http://www.bell-labs.com/about/stories-changed-world/inventing-laser/>.
BibTeX Export Format
@misc{ Title = {From Maser to Laser - Schawlow and Townes Invent the Laser}, Publisher = {Nokia Bell Labs}, Volume = {2016}, Number = {10 December 2016}, Month = {July 10, 2007}, Year = {1998} }
Refer Export Format

%T From Maser to Laser - Schawlow and Townes Invent the Laser
%D July 10, 2007
%I Nokia Bell Labs
%U http://www.bell-labs.com/about/stories-changed-world/inventing-laser/
%O text/html

EndNote Export Format

%0 Electronic Source
%D July 10, 2007
%T From Maser to Laser - Schawlow and Townes Invent the Laser
%I Nokia Bell Labs
%V 2016
%N 10 December 2016
%8 July 10, 2007
%9 text/html
%U http://www.bell-labs.com/about/stories-changed-world/inventing-laser/


Disclaimer: ComPADRE offers citation styles as a guide only. We cannot offer interpretations about citations as this is an automated procedure. Please refer to the style manuals in the Citation Source Information area for clarifications.

Citation Source Information

The AIP Style presented is based on information from the AIP Style Manual.

The APA Style presented is based on information from APA Style.org: Electronic References.

The Chicago Style presented is based on information from Examples of Chicago-Style Documentation.

The MLA Style presented is based on information from the MLA FAQ.

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