Many different active-learning strategies have been studied and developed using Physics Education Research. The Projectile Motion vignette makes use of the classic elicit-confront-resolve (ECR) technique: the IVV elicits a prediction from the user, confronts the user with experimental results based on the horizontal and then the vertical positions of the ball in each frame, and helps the user resolve any differences between the prediction and result. This technique is a very effective method that has been used in many research-based curricular materials, including Tutorials in Introductory Physics and Workshop Physics. Frame-by-frame video analysis is another active learning technique used in vignettes. For example, in the Newtonâ€™s Second Law vignette, the user selects the location of a lab cart propelled by a fan in successive video frames while a velocity vs. time graph is created. This process is then repeated after the cart mass is doubled (using the same fan). By fitting straight lines to the two graphs and measuring their slopes, the user finds that the cart has half as much acceleration when its mass is doubled.
Interactive Video Vignettes are naturally broken into short segments by interactive elements such as making predictions, marking points for video analysis or drawing conclusions. Each video portion is typically one to two minutes long, and entire vignettes generally take only six to twelve minutes to complete. Keeping the videos short is important because recent research has shown that the median engagement time for an online video lecture is at most 6 minutes, regardless of the total video length. Videos of up to three minutes have the highest levels of student engagement.
A meta-analysis of published papers that compare online learning to traditional instruction found that "Online learning can be enhanced by giving learners control of their interactions with media and prompting learner reflection." There is also evidence that increasing the interactivity of an online lecture may make it more effective compared to either a non-interactive online lecture or a face-to-face lecture. For example, in a recent book, Clark and Mayer describe studies demonstrating that students who are exposed to multi-sensory environments, such as pictures, animation, and video, had much more accurate recall than those who only hear or read information. The authors conclude that if the brain is able to construct two mental representations of an explanationâ€”say, verbal and visualâ€”then the mental connections are much stronger. Accordingly, IVVs make use of relevant pictures, text, and activities to enhance narrative videos.
Derek Muller, the creator of the popular science-video website Veritasium.com, found in his dissertation research that "explicit discussions of alternative conceptions are more effective for learning than expository summaries." Consequently, many of our vignettes show the instructor, students, or other participants discussing all the possible answers to multiple-choice questions. The vignettes developed so far include instructor-led presentations, "person-on-the-street" interviews, discussions between students and instructors, and stories played out by student actors. The aim is to create a collection of IVVs with various styles and applications of PER that will help student users learn and at the same time inform the future development of interactive online materials.
- Projectile Motion Independence of vertical and horizontal motion
- Newton's Third Law Forces in a collision
- Bullet-Block Conservation of momentum in an inelastic collision
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